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Ecological problems
2011-04-14
Ecological problems: air pollution, water pollution,littering, the green house effect
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 7,9 kB)
puikus rašinys anglų kalba apie aplinką ir ką padaryti,jog ją išsaugotume.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2 psl., 7,4 kB)
63 anglų topikai
2010-05-31
BALANCED DIET, CINEMA, CRIME, ENVIRONMENT, EUROPEAN UNION & NATO, FOREIGN LANGUAGES, HISTORY OF CHRISTMAS, JUNK FOOD, LITHUANIA IN 50 YEARS’ TIME, MASS MEDIA, PROFILE EDUCATION, SMOKING & DRUGS, SPORT,TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, TRANSPORT....
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (42 psl., 53,24 kB)
Dinosaurs
2010-02-26
Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrate animals for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period (about 230 million years ago) until the end of the Cretaceous period (about 65 million years ago), when the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event caused the extinction of most dinosaur species.
Anglų kalba  Pateiktys   (11 psl., 534,81 kB)
I would like to visit Australia, USA and England. Australia called the most dryest continent. Immensity of the territory is desert or semi-desert areas. Australia does not have gigantic cultural or historical monuments.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 3,58 kB)
Environment
2010-02-09
Many people believe that the way we live our lives today is having an extremely bad effect on the environment. Here are some examples of environmental problems and solutions. Pollution - is damage to the air, sea, rivers, or land caused by chemicals, waste and harmful gases. Pollutants include toxic waste, pesticides, and fertilizers.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 5,4 kB)
Wildlife management
2009-12-22
Interest in wildlife was an important part of the conservation movement of the late 19th century. Although wildlife did not have the economic importance of other resources such as timber, forage, and water, nor did it capture the public's attention as much as efforts to preserve scenic waterfalls or geysers, wildlife (especially big game) was perhaps the most endangered resource of that period. Buffalo, deer, and elk were almost eliminated from the West and predator species (wolf, bear, and cougars) were becoming rare. Upperclass reformers such as George Bird Grinnell, founder of Field and Stream magazine, and Theodore Roosevelt, a co-founder of the Boone and Crockett Club, were alarmed by the fate of big game in the Western States. When Roosevelt sponsored Gifford Pinchot for membership in the club, Pinchot was able to expand the notion of forest conservation to embrace the cause of big game protection. Yet, when the newly created Federal forest reserves were transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Department of Agriculture in 1905, Gifford Pinchot as head of the Forest Services apparently did not see much of a relationship between national forest administration and wildlife. His emphasis on timber resources set the future tone of the agency. Moreover, the agency had to be cautious about regulating game animals and birds on the forest reserves (which were renamed national forests in 1907), for fear of trampling States' rights and giving its western critics reason to disband the reserves. The policy of the Forest Service was to "cooperate with the game wardens of the State or Territory in which they serve ..." according to the first book of directives issued by the agency in 1905 (The Use Book). Two years later, a provision in the Agricultural Appropriations Act of 1907 made it a law that "hereafter officials of the Forest Service shall, in all ways that are practicable, aid in the enforcement of the laws of the States or Territories with regard to ... the protection of fish and game."
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (107,11 kB)
Tiger
2009-12-22
Tiger Tigers (Panthera tigris) are mammals of the Felidae family and one of four "big cats" in the Panthera genus. They are apex predators and the largest feline species in the world, comparable in size to the biggest fossil felids. The Bengal Tiger is the most common subspecies of tiger, constituting approximately 80% of the entire tiger population, and is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and India. An endangered species, the majority of the world's tigers now live in captivity. Physical traits Tigers are the heaviest cats found in the wild. Although different subspecies of tiger have different characteristics, in general male tigers weigh between 200 and 320 kilograms (440 and 700 lb) and females between 120 and 181 kg (265 and 400 lb). On average, males are between 2.6 and 3.3 metres (8 ft 6 in to 10 ft 8 in) in length, and females are between 2.3 and 2.75 metres (7 ft 6 in and 9 ft) in length. Of the living subspecies, Sumatran tigers are the smallest, and Amur (or Siberian) tigers are the largest. Most tigers have orange coats, a fair (whitish) medial and ventral area and stripes that vary from brown or hay to pure black. The form and density of stripes differs between subspecies, but most tigers have in excess of 100 stripes. The now-extinct Javan tiger may have had far more than this. The pattern of stripes is unique to each animal, and thus could potentially be used to identify individuals, much in the same way as fingerprints are used to identify people. This is not, however, a preferred method of identification, due to the difficulty of recording the stripe pattern of a wild tiger. It seems likely that the function of stripes is camouflage, serving to hide these animals from their prey. The stripe pattern is found on a tiger's skin and if shaved, its distinctive camouflage pattern would be preserved. Like most cats, tigers are believed to have some degree of colour vision. There is a well-known mutation that produces the white tiger, an animal which is rare in the wild, but widely bred in zoos due to its popularity. The white tiger is not a separate sub-species, but only a colour variation. There are also unconfirmed reports of a "blue" or slate-coloured tiger, and largely or totally black tigers, and these are assumed, if real, to be intermittent mutations rather than distinct species. Similar to the lion, the tiger has the ability to roar. Tigers' extremely strong jaws and sharp teeth make them superb predators. Most tigers live in forests or grasslands, for which their camouflage is ideally suited, and where it is easy to hunt prey that are faster or more agile. Among the big cats, only the tiger and jaguar are strong swimmers; tigers are often found bathing in ponds, lakes, and rivers and are known to kill while swimming. Tigers hunt alone and eat primarily medium to large sized herbivores such as sambar deer, but they also have the capability to eat much smaller prey such as birds, and other such things, wild pigs, young gaur, water buffalo and domestic cattle. They also kill such formidable predators as sloth bear, dogs, leopards, crocodiles and pythons as prey, and occasionally prey on creatures as small as langurs, peacocks and hares. Old and injured tigers have been known to attack humans or domestic cattle and are then termed as man-eaters or cattle-lifters which often leads to them being captured, shot or poisoned. Adult elephants are too dangerous to tigers to serve as common prey, but conflicts between elephants and tigers do sometimes take place. Tigers often ambush their prey as other cats do, overpowering their prey from any angle, using their body size and strength to knock prey off balance. Even with great masses, Tigers can reach speeds of about 60 km/h (37 mph). Once prone, the tiger bites the back of the neck, often breaking the prey's spinal cord, piercing the windpipe, or severing the jugular vein or carotid artery. Tigers prefer to bite the throats of large prey. After biting, the tiger then uses its muscled forelimbs to hold onto the prey, bringing it to the ground. The tiger remains latched onto the neck until its prey dies. The Sundarbans mangrove swamps of Bengal have had a higher incidence of man-eaters, where some healthy tigers have been known to hunt humans as prey. In the wild, tigers can leap as high as 5 m (16 ft) and as far as 9-10 m (30-33 ft), making them one of the highest-jumping mammals (just slightly behind cougars in jumping ability). They have been reported to carry domestic livestock weighing 50 kg (110 lb) while easily jumping over fences 2 m (6 ft 6 in) high. Their heavily muscled forelimbs are used to hold tightly onto the prey and to avoid being dislodged, especially by large prey such as gaurs. Gaurs and water buffalo weighing over a ton have been killed by tigers weighing about a sixth as much. A single blow from a tiger's paw can kill a full-grown wolf or human, or can heavily injure a 150 kg (330 lb) Sambar deer.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (285,79 kB)
The Romans
2009-12-22
The Romans were the people from a city called Rome in what is now Italy. Rome was the greatest city of its time. At one time it had nearly one million people living there. About 1,800 years ago Rome was the centre of a big empire. For a long time the Romans believed in many different gods and goddesses.For example like Saturn, Minerva, Mars, Venus, Ceres and so on. They thought they were all part of a family and people told stories or myths about them. Each gods or goddess looked after different people or things. The Romans traded goods throughout their Empire. By importing goods from other countries they raised their standard of living and were able to have many luxuries. They used their network of roads and also waterways to transport goods from one country to another. The Romans imported silver from Great Britain, silk from China, cotton from Egypt and so on. Without trades and businesses, the Romans were lovers of entertainment. People went to one of the big theatres in Rome to watch plays. They went to the Hippodrome to see the chariot racing, too. The Colosseum in Rome could seat up to 50,000 people and was the largest amphitheatre in the Empire. It was here that people gathered to see the fights between gladiators, slaves, prisoners and wild animals like lions. Roman clothes were made of wool, spun into cloth by the women of the family. Later on the richer people had slaves to do this work for them. If you could afford to buy clothes, you could buy linen, cotton or silk, which was brought to Rome from other parts of the Empire. Washing clothes was difficult because the Romans did not have washing machines or soap powder. The Romans did not eat huge meals. Their main food was pottage. Pottage is a kind of thick stew made from wheat, millet or corn. Sometimes they would add cooked meat, offal or a sauce made out of wine. Food for the common people consisted of wheat or barley, olive oil.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3,87 kB)
Rape a women
2009-12-22
This is just one out of millions stories of rape. Several books can be written describing the stories of rape and many more volumes about the feelings of the raped women. Every day newspapers are full of reports of rape. People are scared. We know the definition of rape, but very few know what a victim feels. The act of not being able to choose what you want to do with your very own body is a violation in itself. No one understands that feeling until it happens. It is like knowing that you are going to get into a car accident, seeing the other vehicle approaching, not being able to stop it, but it lasting much, much longer. We are taught that we can choose how to live, but in case of raping we can not do anyhing at all, just wait until the end: end of the act or end of life… “I know that I will never, ever be the same person again. In fact, after it happened, I asked both my daughter and my sister if I looked different. Because I have changed so much, it must be on my face”, -says a raped 49-year woman. There are many explanations of a crime, its reasons and the effects on the victim. The view towards the causes of a rape changed over centuries. But almost all theories, no matter how old are they and their authors have one common trait: they blame the criminal and emphasize that he has some psychical disorders. Actually, there is a question: who is a victim: a raped woman or a rapist. They both are victims. The impact of rape on the victims emtional health appears to be huge. Several studies have found that during the first six months after rape, women show high levels of depression, anxiety, dismay and many other indicators of emotional distress. Some women manage to cope with it, fight and repair their lives. But the rapist cannot. He is not normal. A normal man cannot do such horrible things with so sad circumstances just for such a short pleasure. S. Brownmiller, a feminist, claims that the main motive of rape is a man’s asspiration to control and predominate over woman. Psychologists support this idea and claim that a rapist had problems in communicating in early childhood and he can not have close relationship with people. He is very lonely and repulsed and that is why he wants revenge. This theory also explains why he chooses women: physically women are weaker than men and there is much more chance to suceed. Statistical data show that the majority of the rapists feel that they are of little value. That is why they want to show their strenght and choose not very self-confident, weak and young women ( the most common age is 16-25 years). I ask a victim of a rape: “Was he normal?”. She is shocked by such a stupid question: “Normal? That bastard is sick. He was not a human. He was worse than an animal”. The biological theory explains that rapists are born with the savage instincts of wild animals. A bent for aggression and other crimes is inherited and lots of evidence is found. Christiansen’s research shows that if one of the monozygotic twins is a criminal, it is predictible that the other one will be a criminal as well. One more scientifically prooved explanation is related with internal inhibitions and controls. Only very few rapists are irresponsible for their actions. But the majority of criminals do not have such internal inhibitions and values as normal people do. Psychologists assert that internal controls are not develoveloped because of deficient or deviant values of a person. It is obvious that a man with strong and right values does not even think of such a humiliation of an innocent woman and of ruining her life. Only the one who thinks that it is quite normal to take by force from a woman what in normal conditions she can give to a man, can rape and after that feel almost normally or just feel nothing. And this leads to the only conclusion- he is not like the majority, he is not normal. Psychoanalytic theory, which also says that rapists are not normal people, was developed by Zigmund Freud. He says that the Superego (or the conscience) of rapists is not strong enough to contervale the wild inborn instincts of the Id. S.Freud claims that the sexual instinct is the most powerful in people’s decisions, but the Superego manages to control it. But when the Superego is weak, man can listen to his wild instinct to satisfy the sexual wish to have sex with any woman right here and right now. This disorder is very dangerous both to that individual and for society. Freud treats such men as not normal, but curable. But rape is not just a sexual intercause, but a physical injury as well. About seventy percent of rape is combined with severe injuries. Thanks God that just a little part is followed by death. There are such sadistic rapists who keep their victims for several days, no matter wheather she has children, hwo are waiting for their mother to return home. One married woman was taken from her own home and beaten and raped for seven days. Were they normal? It is up to You to decide. A normal man is ashamed to beat a woman at all. And here four “normal” men beat and rape a married woman for several days and do not care that her baby is waiting for his sweetest mummy. What do those men get for such actions? Ten orgasms and an opportunity to train their muscles? Was it worth the trouble? They think so, because they are deviants. Some men are such devils that they rape their own children and wives- the most precious people in their lives. The worst word in the world would be too kind for them. And for rape they are inprisoned only for eight to fifteen years. But the question is why they aren’t sentenced by capital punishment. They come out of prison and rape again. Another kind of rape is so-called “date rapes”. Such rapists are deviant in few aspects: they do not understand the meaning of a very simple word “No” ; and they feel satisfaction in having sex with a woman who may be screaming, crying, trying to escape… The main difference from the simple rapists is that they rarely beat their victim. But this is not a big comfort to the victim. A rapist can be anyone: a father, a grandfather, an uncle, a neighbour, a son… It would be good if physical appearance of the rapists would differ from the appearance of normal men. But it does not. Only psychics differ greatly: the men who can rape women have very serious problems in communicating with people, feel that they are of little value, do not have internal inhibitions and controls. The rapists are not like other men- they are not normal.
So I can assert that the greatest influence on environment has the philosophy. And the biggest philosophies are the religions. But now I have to be disillusioned with the absence of the proper religion. If we take for example the Indian - this religion treats the world as an illusion. The reality is the great one. I don’t think that kind of philosophy / religion is effective in forming a backdrop for environmental responsibility. We are growing larger and larger as a world. More and more people will be inhabiting the earth, and we will need to do more to see that the world can provide for us all. Where will we find the appropriate philosophy for it? Indian religion, with respect for the spirits of the animals and the trees, cuts closer to the kind of philosophy I would like to see. However, the religion is perhaps too deferential. Indian religion arose in an atmosphere of relative abundance and few people. Indian philosophy of the environment is predicated on an abundance and not subduing our environment to make it produce more. The ways are traditional and more passive. The earth gives us what we need, and we take what we need. With the amount of population of the world today, however, we do need the division of labour and economies of scale to allow for the abundance of food and needed items to feed, house, and cloth the world’s people. If we look to the East we will found that this philosophy is not appropriate at all. Too big population will cause the lack of food, houses, and clothes. For some people of this religion the ideas of saving the environment may seem completely alien. In my opinion some places of this religion should be changed, should be updated. The same thing is with the Christian religion. If we look through the history we can find lots of facts when Christianity was trying to stop the development of science. If it had happened differently the great pollution would have started earlier. But on other hand the people would have earlier noticed the impact of human-beings on the environment. The Christians tenets indicates all the human’s behaviour, except his relationship with nature.
Protecting nature
2009-12-22
So I can assert that the greatest influence on environment has the philosophy. And the biggest philosophies are the religions. But now I have to be disillusioned with the absence of the proper religion. If we take for example the Indian - this religion treats the world as an illusion. The reality is the great one. I don’t think that kind of philosophy / religion is effective in forming a backdrop for environmental responsibility. We are growing larger and larger as a world. More and more people will be inhabiting the earth, and we will need to do more to see that the world can provide for us all. Where will we find the appropriate philosophy for it? Indian religion, with respect for the spirits of the animals and the trees, cuts closer to the kind of philosophy I would like to see. However, the religion is perhaps too deferential. Indian religion arose in an atmosphere of relative abundance and few people. Indian philosophy of the environment is predicated on an abundance and not subduing our environment to make it produce more. The ways are traditional and more passive. The earth gives us what we need, and we take what we need. With the amount of population of the world today, however, we do need the division of labour and economies of scale to allow for the abundance of food and needed items to feed, house, and cloth the world’s people. If we look to the East we will found that this philosophy is not appropriate at all. Too big population will cause the lack of food, houses, and clothes. For some people of this religion the ideas of saving the environment may seem completely alien. In my opinion some places of this religion should be changed, should be updated. The same thing is with the Christian religion. If we look through the history we can find lots of facts when Christianity was trying to stop the development of science. If it had happened differently the great pollution would have started earlier. But on other hand the people would have earlier noticed the impact of human-beings on the environment. The Christians tenets indicates all the human’s behaviour, except his relationship with nature.
Lithuania lies by the Baltic Sea. But only the west part of our country is bathed by the sea. The climate in our country is quite good. We coul enjoy four seasons of the year. Every season is different from each other. My favourite season is spring. In this season we could see birds, like storks, tits, cuckoo and other, coming back from warm countries after long winter. Animals awake from their winter sleep. All nature becomes green. We could enjoy beautiful and colourful flowers. Most of them in spring I like violets. I like to watch the life of butterflies, ladybirds and grassschopers. After spring season comes summer. Then the weather becomes very hot. We could met various kind of wild animals in lithuanian woods: wolves, foxes, wild boars, beavers and other mammals. Also there is woodpeckers, swallows, sparows and storks, that are busy with finding food to eat. Very beautiful bird for me is swan. That white bird lives in lakes and delight people watching them. After amazing summer season comes autumn. It is very colourfull season, because the sky is blue and it matches with red, yellow and brown colours of the leaves on the trees. In this season people go to forest to pick mushrooms, nuts and wild berries. Unfortunately, this season always makes people be sad because of rainny and windy days. The coldest season of the year is winter. Then it snows a lot and the weather usually is really cold. Also there is fog and frost. So it‘s not one of my favourite season, despite my favourite holiday of a year – Christmas holiday. I think weather in Lithuania is enough good for us and it is better than in Australia, Africa or in Antarctica.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3,24 kB)
Life in the future
2009-12-22
Eventually, genetic engineering will allow us to create the perfect human. It will be hard to get used to. Parents will order a baby who will grow up to do a slam dunk or to have a Barbie doll appearance. But after the 2082 winter Olympics, some babies will be created aerodynamic, so they can sail like ski jumpers. Soon, powerful little motors will be added so they can fly, and a new fad will really take off. Billions of slam dunkers will jump for joy, while billions of Barbie dollers will become totally depressed. Also, genetic engineering will allow us to mix plants and animals. So, should we allow a female researcher to cross a man with a tree? She would then have something much more stable and dependable, and he wouldn't run around as much. But who would want to be a tree? If that was allowed, then what would the male researchers come up with?
Anglų kalba  Straipsniai   (10,64 kB)
Life and death
2009-12-22
Though less is known about death. All we know is that the body stops functioning. And no one knows what comes after that, what happens with person’s mind and spirit. Or maybe nothing happens, human existence just ends at the moment of death. So far it is everyone’s business to believe in life after death or not. But there is one question that can be discussed about death: is it meaningful or not? One can say that the one who believes in life after death will give the meaning to it and on the contrary – the one who does not – will not give the meaning to it. But there are people who do not believe in life after death. They even do not know if they believe in something at all and death is something mysterious, something important in human’s life even for them. Why death is so important in human’s life? Is it important? Before answering these questions I checked in the Internet hoping to find something about death. I looked for information in Academic Search Elite and Academic Search Premier databases and found over 20.000 pages related to this theme. Of course, not all of them were only about death itself, some of them where about death of some famous person, but the numbers speak. People talk about it, and if they talk about it – they care about it, it is important for them. However, why others think that it is just “an awful, stinking, absurd horror, and there is no way of giving it meaning”? There may be a lot of reasons and I would like to mention some of them. Let us look at the world history and especially the World War I, World War II and other tragedies. Dead people were buried all together without coffins, without priests (if a man was religious), without any attention. Of course, there were such circumstances – economic situation was bad, no time for normal funeral (have to fight), lots of unknown dead people. The death lost it’s mysteriousness, sacral meaning. Therefore some people think of death if it was only the end of bodies functioning. Though no man can judge them because no-one knows if there is something after death. Everyone knows for sure that the body begins to fall to pieces, begins to putrefy, to stink after death. This is also a reason to think as Rollo May does. But we should think from the other point of view. Every man’s death makes his relatives, friends, acquaintances feel bad, sad, or at least uncomfortable. Some of them say that they miss the person, feel lonely without him. Maybe it can be called egoism, but still person’s death does not pass through without consequences. It makes us stop for a second and think about the eternal questions of life and death. Yet another reason for such thinking could be the fear of death. When people are afraid of something they usually ignore or deny it. Some of them do not even think about it. In this situation a person who thinks so do not want to have any relationships with death and therefore deny it, give no meaning to it. And as the folk wisdom speaks – the roots of fear hide in ignorance. The meaning of death also shows burying traditions. Our ancients showed respect to a dead man by putting expensive clothes, things, animals and even humans to graves. They believed in life after death and emphasized it with great ceremonies. When Catholicism came to our culture burying traditions have changed but nevertheless it remained very important in humans’ life cycle. It proves the importance of priest’s participation in funeral. I have already mentioned World Wars. As it is the tragedy of the whole mankind, we can not judge about significance of death from this point of view. Nowadays things change very fast and it is hard to decide how people think about things. By the way Andrew Greeley said: “since the fall of socialism in Eastern Europe there has been a significant increase in religious faith in Hungary, Slovenia, East Germany, and the Soviet Union, particularly in matters of religious faith like belief in God, life after death, heaven, hell, and religious miracles.” (Society, Mar/Apr2001, Vol. 38 Issue 3, p32, 6p). Proving this I should say I was surprised one day by the Mass in the Catholic Church – there were lots of young people, they were singing, it looked as if they liked it very much to be in church, to participate in Mass. It was no doubt for me that they really believe in God who says that death is an important period in human’s existence. But there is another question about believing in God and meaningful death. It happens very often that a man who lost his friend, beloved person in early childhood when his faith in something was just beginning to develop does not believe in God, hates death because of some unfairness, offense. He can not go to a funeral, he laughs at those who suffer because of somebody’s death. He says he does not understand people who give some meaning to death. But it is just a defensive reaction. He denies death because he does not want to remember early childhood’s horrible experience. Lately I have been to a couple of funerals. People who died were not very close to me. Still their death touched me. As I looked at dead people’s relatives, friends I realized that this event is very hard to experience. It seemed that they lost the ground under their feet, they looked so lost as if they did not know how they were going to live any longer. But still in such a sad situation they believed that for a man who died will be easier to live “there”. They wanted to say goodbye to their friend, relative and I even heard one woman saying that she hopes to see him in the better world. That was the most convincing argument that she believes in the meaning of death. I would like to say that nobody should give up in believing in life after death. People should believe in death as in a one step in the better human’s life. In nowadays when social, economic conditions are very unfavorable old people who have to little time to change something must have hope in case they could live their last days cheerfully, hopefully. But it is one problem with it – people are too afraid in death. Let us cope with this problem, let us give a hopeful meaning to death and let us live more joyful!
Having a pet
2009-12-22
Touching some other bases, I must say that there are many reasons of having a pet. The most important is loneliness. However I can’t deny that some people keep pets for fun. There are strong arguments both for and against keeping a pet. I would like begin with advantages of owning a pet. The first reason of having a pet is that their benefits for children are undeniable. Keeping a pet is an important part of every child’s childhood and plays a big role in both their physical and mental development. It teaches children how to play, look after them, while at the same time aiding tolerance and understanding of each other. From a social standpoint, pets play a large role in many lonely people’s lives. Nowadays more than ever lonely people are fond of keeping pets, because it helps to raise their mood, when they are in low spirits, and not to feel so extremely lonely. The final advantage of having a pet is that it makes fun for people who are crazy about attending various animals’ exhibitions and showing the best points of their pets to others. However, there are many disadvantages of keeping a pet as well. Perhaps the most obvious one is that pets cause a lot of damage. In fact, a lot of people face with this problem. To avoid that they always have to look after their pet and try not to keep them in rooms which are full of valuable things. Secondly, some people can’t keep pets because of their health. Usually they are allergies and can not live with a pet in the same place. Furthermore, some pets, especially dogs, dislike little children and they are likely to bite them. So it is advisable to think twice before buying a pet and consider both advantages and disadvantages. Talking about pets, I am able to say that I have a pet too. I have big, fat cat. He is called Meilas. He is Persian race. All my family’s life changed when we got this cat. This cat brought to our lives more fun. I feel very happy when Meilas meets me coming back from school. He is my best friend. To sum it up, I must say that if you love your pet, he makes you life as fun as you can imagine.
Genetic engineering
2009-12-22
It is estimated that humans have between 50,000 to 100,000 different genes; some of them are linked to particular diseases and conditions. Scientists have now identified nearly 4000 conditions that are limited to single defects in a person’s genetic code. Researchers all around the world are currently engaged in “The human genome project”, which aims to identify and define the function of every gene to be found in the human body. Through this they hope to locate errant genes, thereby getting a better understanding of every disease that is genetically transmittable and if possible find a cure for it. Genetic engineering, where by the defective gene sequence is cut and remodeled, is one route scientists might take. At present genetics can be a reliable predictor of who is likely to develop a particular fatal illness. Many feel that this information has the potential to cause as much harm as good, among the 10 percent of the population who may be affected. Some say that people would not be able to cope with the knowledge that they were likely to contract a terminal illness, but genetics argue that everyone has the right to know so that they could plan the rest of their lives. Some women who have been told that they are likely to develop breast cancer have chosen a surgery to remove the breast in order to increase their chances of survival. Genetic engineering is big business, and many experiments take place on animals. Fruit flies have been produced that they have extra eyes on their wings and legs; two years ago scientists grew an ear in a test tube and then transplanted on a laboratory mouse without immune system in order to see if it would be rejected. Harvard University has even patented its own mouse known as “nocuous” which has been genetically manipulated to develop cancer. Imutran, a Cambridge-based biotechnology firm, have produced a pig that is transgenic, from which they hope to be able to supply donor organs such as hearts that are in short supply for transplantation. The revelation that scientists at Cambridge University have successfully transplanted the hearts from genetically altered pigs into monkeys is the most wonderful news to have emerged from the world of medicine fro more than a decade. We are all to familiar with the bad side of science – here is a cause for being happy. The implications are stunning. We are witnessing the forward in human happiness. The chance now exists that hundreds of thousands of people, who are waiting for heart, liver and kidney transplants and would die because of the lack of donors, will now live. Suffers from many other diseases will also face hope. Not only will all those who need these major organ transplants be treated but whole new therapies will emerge. Many cancers, for example are now treated by chemotherapy or radiotherapy but in future it might be safer and more effective to just transplant the affected organ. Possibilities are nearly endless and truly amazing. Whole new era of health and longevity is now downing. Names of diseases: Appendicitis, bronchitis, cancer, chicken-pox, constipation – vidurių užkietėjimas, diabetes, diarrhoea – viduriavimas, hay fever – šienligė, hepatitis, indigestion – skrandžio skausmai, flu, insomnia – nemiga, leukaemia, measles – tymai, mumps – kiaulytė, tonsillitis – angina. Shortened one: Genetic engineering A general term for the direncted manipulation of genes, and usually used synonymously with genetic manipulation or genetic modification. A wide range of technologies are involved in this, but most involve the recombinant DNA techniques. Genetic engineering falls into several different categories depending on what is being engineered. Bacteria, yeast. This is ‘traditional’ genetic engineering (over 10 years old). Using recombinant DNA techniques genes are put into microorganisms to make them produce something we want, be it insulin, better beer or protein for food. Animals. Genetically engineered animals are usually called transgenetic animals. They are produced by a combination of fertilization techniques and DNA technology and produce animals that pass on their genetic modification to their offspring. Plants. Sometimes called transgenetic plants. They are created through the use of plant cloning technologies, which involve growing plants from isolated plant cells. Humans. Although the genetic engineering methods applicable to cows or mice are, in theory, applicable to humans, they have not been yet applied for obvious ethical reasons. Some experiments treating disease have been performed: these do not modify the germ cells. This is called gene theraphy rather than more public allarming term genetic engineering.
Food and drink
2009-12-22
Food is any substance(medžiaga) that can be consumed (suvalgyti), including liquid drinks. Food is the main source of energy and of nutrition (maistas) for animals, and is usually of animal or plant origin. Such description you could find in encyclopedia. However, food and drink aren`t only essential substance for us, but may be a great pleasure. Of course, we should know how to choose food to be healthy and lively. In this instance.I`d like to mention popular fast food menu which items are unhealthful. To illustrate these health concerns, the 2004 documentary film Super Size Me had the director, Morgan Spurlock, eat nothing but McDonald's fast food -- and stop all exercise -- for 30 days. He gained weight and became frequently sick. So to avoid such this, you have to know The Food Pyramid which guides you to healthy eating. The Pyramid diet is very simple. Different kinds of food are placed at different levels of the pyramid. The higher up the pyramid, the less of the foods you should eat. Bread, pasta, rice, and other whole grains are at the bottom of the pyramid. These foods contain complex carbohydrates, which provide us the energy and heat. Carbohydrates should make about 50 % of your diet. Fruit and vegetables are the second level of the pyramid. These should be 30% your diet. Above fruit and vegetables are the protein-rich foods like meat, fish, milk, chesse, yoghurt. your diet. At the top of the pyramid are fat, oil, sweets and sugar. We should eat as little as possible of things at this level. These foods have damaging effect on teeth. It is also recomended to drink 6 glasses of water a day and have daily physical activities in order to be healthy and fit. In conclusion, it is not easy to eat healthy foods.However take the first step toward healthier eating and a healthier lifestyle on the very next day.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (5,66 kB)
English grammar
2009-12-22
Emotions cause not only general reactions, but specific ones as well. We may laugh when happy, withdraw when frightened, get aggressive when angry, and so forth. Among these typical emotional reactions, psychologists have singled out one in particular for extensive study: aggression. The components of an emotion include autonomic arousal (sužadinimas), cognitive appraisal (įvertinimas), and emotional expression. Intense emotions usually involve physiological arousal caused by activation of the autonomic nervous system. People who have spinal cord injuries, report experiencing less intense emotions. Most people report getting angry at least several times a week often at loved ones. Though they commonly feel like aggressing physically when angered most control these impulses. Frustration and pain (mental and physical) arouse anger and can stimulate aggression. Incentives may also trigger aggression. Aggression is a typical reaction to anger (though it can occur for other reasons as well). According to early psychoanalytic theory, aggression is a frustration-produced drive; according to social-learning theory, aggression is a learned response. Biology gives animals the capacity to hurt one another. The threshold levels of numerous aggressive brain systems are thought to be influenced by heredity other neutral circuits, blood chemistry, neurotransmitters, and experience. Cultures that sanction aggression have high rates of it. Families teach aggression directly and indirectly. When treated harshly, children pick up the same habits. Other contributers to aggression include school failures and frustrations, anonymity, poverty, and the availability of weapons. Several techniques for the control of human aggression exist. These include punishment, catharsis, exposure to nonaggressive models, and training in basic social skills. In addition, aggression can often be reduced though the induction of responses or emotional states incompatible with such behavior.
Emotions cause not only general reactions, but specific ones as well. We may laugh when happy, withdraw when frightened, get aggressive when angry, and so forth. Among these typical emotional reactions, psychologists have singled out one in particular for extensive study: aggression. The components of an emotion include autonomic arousal (sužadinimas), cognitive appraisal (įvertinimas), and emotional expression. Intense emotions usually involve physiological arousal caused by activation of the autonomic nervous system. People who have spinal cord injuries, report experiencing less intense emotions. Most people report getting angry at least several times a week often at loved ones. Though they commonly feel like aggressing physically when angered most control these impulses. Frustration and pain (mental and physical) arouse anger and can stimulate aggression. Incentives may also trigger aggression. Aggression is a typical reaction to anger (though it can occur for other reasons as well). According to early psychoanalytic theory, aggression is a frustration-produced drive; according to social-learning theory, aggression is a learned response. Biology gives animals the capacity to hurt one another. The threshold levels of numerous aggressive brain systems are thought to be influenced by heredity other neutral circuits, blood chemistry, neurotransmitters, and experience. Cultures that sanction aggression have high rates of it. Families teach aggression directly and indirectly. When treated harshly, children pick up the same habits. Other contributers to aggression include school failures and frustrations, anonymity, poverty, and the availability of weapons. Several techniques for the control of human aggression exist. These include punishment, catharsis, exposure to nonaggressive models, and training in basic social skills. In addition, aggression can often be reduced though the induction of responses or emotional states incompatible with such behavior.
In our world are a lot of animals. Some of them live their usual life. Others are threatened of extinction. They live only in theirs specific areas. Some of them are just on extinction, but there are a lot of which number of population is really small. Animals which are on extinction are the following: stoats (šermuonėlis), seals (ruonis), white hares (baltasis kiškis), black storks and grass snakes. They are threatening of extinction because of some reasons. First and the most important reason is that these animals haven’t got fitted to them residence. They live in uninhabitable areas. They haven’t got specific food, and they can’t adapt to alterable living conditions. Second reason why there are endangered animals is that man's mastery over his environment is really huge. First here are a lot of factories and companies which are polluting air and water. Second there are cutting down forests on a mass scale. One more human’s harm is that hunters are hunting some animals for their fur, skin or bones. Animals are vanishing apace, and if we don’t take measures animals will disappear and it is unstoppable. So what should we done? First I think we have to try to reduce air and water pollution. We have to try to live cleanly. We ought to stop littering and using chemicals. Second way how to protect these vanishing animals is to transpose them to the zoo or into their specific and fitted areas. In these areas they can live their normal lives. To sum up I want to say that all of us have to understand that if these animals will disappear we can’t restore them.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3,04 kB)
American people
2009-12-22
And they wanted nothing back. Later we hitched a ride to Salinas with a truck driver. He was also worried about our safety and tried over his CB radio to fix us up with a ride with another trucker from Salinas to San Francisco. When he could not, he told us, “I do not want to leave you on the street, so I will take you up myself to make sure you get there safely.” And then he drove us to San Francisco and dropped us off on Market Street where we were going to stay. And he didin’t want anything back. He would not let pay him. That trip was a highlight of my stay in America. Richard Ingrams, a reporter for the Illustrated London News, enjoyed a memorable encounter with a street beggar near Watington: On our way down the hill from Monticello, Alexander remarked on another curios fact about Americans: “If you look at them, they always smile. I find that rather disconcerting.” Personally, I said I found it rather nice, and a pleasant change from the dour and suspicious looks one gets from one’s fellow countrymen. In fact what is nice about America is not the scenery or the skyscrapers…. It is the smiling, open attitude of the American people. On my last morning in Georgetown I found myself confronted in the main street by a large, beaming, bearded man. “Good morning, sir,” he cried. “I’m a bum! Would you give me some money?” No cringing. No pretence about cups of tea. A frank, straightforward approach to the situation. I immediately fished in my pocket for all available change – something I would never do in England – and decided I would probably be back quite soon. From “Stars and Gripes,” in the Illustrated London News, September 1987 The Violent American “The best thing about Americans their violence-oriented country is the fact the Atlantic is between us,” insist a retired British journalist. “American foreign policy pervers the advance of humanity and culture by creating a weapon-oriented life for all of us.” One aspect of American behavior which provokes numerous hostile comments from foreign observers is what they perceive as our tendency toward aggressive and violent actions. Dr. Hugo Molteni, a Buenos Aires physician, has never visited America but draws his conclusions from the newspapers, films, and television shows he has watched: The information I have about the U.S. demonstrates that they are a people who are clearly aggressive. For example, in all the movies I see, violence predominates. The there are the television series, police stories, crimes, assassination, drug deals. I think they have commercialized individual passition. The people of the United States have a wartime mentality. Quoted in Dallas Morning News, July 6, 1986  The Russian comic Yakov Smirnoff has found in America’s criminal violence a rich source for witticisms: Police departaments, like those in the United States, are created to protect you and keep you safe. As a matter of fact, thanks to them, Americans have many wonderful things we never had in the Soviet Union. Like warning shots. I think they’re great. In Russia the police don’t shoot up in the air. They shoot you!… and that’s the warning for the next guy. From America on Six Rubles a Day American Provincialism Christina Ruffini had complaint about the Americans she met during her stay in Southern California: Many Americans are much too provincial. They have no sense of what my Italy is like. I have had Americans ask me if we have freeways in Italy. This is crazy! I think this ignorance of a world beyond their borders is a big problem for many Americans. From an interview with the author, June 17, 1988  Anita Mandrekar, who lives in Bombay, alsofound the ignorance ofmost Americans regarding her native India appalling on her recent trip to the United States. Americans are generally ignorant on international matters. People there do not know much of the world outside. Even upper income groups still think that we in India live in jungles and have wild animals and snakes crawling all over. From a letter to the author, dated August 7, 1988 Literature: James C. Simmons “AMERICANS. The view from abroad” Harmony books New York 1990
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5,83 kB)
1. Personal identification I’m Darius. I was born in 1978 on the 21th of February in Kaunas. I don’t remember anything about the weather that day, but I know that it was about 2:30 p.m. I was the first child in the family. Our family is not very big, I have a brother. When I was a child I can't say, that I was a good boy. My parents always want me to be a good man, and now I'm very thankful for that. At that time I didn’t understand that my parents wanted good for me, and I made my mother worry about me very often. I think, that my character isn’t bad now and I’m a good, sincere and tolerant teenager. In 1985 I started school and now I'm graduating it. I was good at all subjects. I am fond of school. I liked my class. I always felt like at home here. Everybody was so friendly and easy to get a long with. I was on good terms with my classmates and we always spend our free time together. I think, that school years maybe remain in my heart forever. I want to say a few words about the future. I'm going to take entrance exams and enter KTU. I would like to study Computer Science. My parents are engineers - programmers and I like this profession too. That's all about myself. 2. Services Services aren't important as food, drinks or home, but it's enough important to as. One of them we use more frequently others we don't use. There are many services in my region. There is post near my house. You can use all services that post can offer: to send a postcard, letter or parcel, make postal - order, to buy stamp or postcard. There are petrols where you can buy gas. Also there are hospital and police station in my region. Police station is one of the unpleasant services. You get there when you commit something bad. If you want to do photos it's no problem, because there are some places there you can make photograph. A Very important service for people's beauty is hairdressing saloon. But there is only one saloon in my region. Bank is very important for people, which have their own business. Usually they open checking account. But a lot of firms haven't enough money so they take loans. Diplomatic services are useful, when you are in foreign country or when you want to go there. And garage - service use people who have a car. Here they can check and put right their cars. The most important services are hairdressing, photography, post, and hospital. So all services are very useful. They make our life easier. 3. House and home I live in apartment house. This house is in _____ street. I have an apartment in a nine-story building I live on the second floor. The livers keep house in order. There are many trees near my house. My house was built in 1991. The number of my flat is 17. I live in the two rooms flat. The area of my flat is about 60 square meters. There is a balcony in my flat. I have a fine view from the balcony and windows. I have two bed-sitting rooms, a bathroom, a toilet, a corridor and kitchen. There are bookcases, wardrobes, beds, tables in the bed-sitting rooms. My walls are papered. On the floor there are carpets. I have all amenities hot and cold water, gas, electric light, central heating, lift. In the kitchen there is gas cooker. There are gas meter, electric meter and water meter. I would like to have a detached house in some solitary place, far away from the town's noise, smoke and polluted air. Sure it'll be a two-stored house with a big yard and garden. 4. Flora Lithuania's flora is rich and varied, because of its geographical position and climatic peculiarities, but we can't boast that it's peculiar to it alone. We have typical northern plants such as conifers, deciduous trees. Forests cover one fourth of its territory. 3 centuries ago, they were twice as extensive. Nowadays more woods are cut down than replanted. We have lots of spruce, birch and alder woods as well. It's a pity such trees as oaks, ashes and limes are decreasing, because they were used as timber. Now we can hardly find oak, ash or lime woods. The preservation and restoration of forest hasn't been given great attention. Every year hectares of forest are planted, but more hectares are felled. Timber is still the chief article of export. Some trees are remarkable as natural rarities. In East Lithuania at Stelmuze grows an old oak, that according to botanists, about 1,5 thousand years old. Forests cover one half of the territory in east and South Lithuania. The Varena-Druskininkai forests spread on area of thousands square km. These forests abound in mushrooms, berries and beasts. The Rudininkai forest remind as of historical events. The rebels of 1831 and 1863 against the Russian czar found refuge in it. The Cepkeliai swamp, covering 5000ha is the largest in Lithuania. Broad and beautiful are the Labanoras, Kazlu Ruda and other forests. 40% of Lithuanian's territory is occupied by arable land. 5. Fauna The Lithuanian forests have inspired many poets, writers and composers. They devoted their works to the charm of woods. The fauna has no particular species peculiar to it alone. There are various species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. For various reasons many kinds or them became extinct. This fate befell aurochs, bisons, bears, etc. All forests can boast of the giant of woods - the antlered elk. Elk meat is exported abroad. Deer are less common. Roe and hares are abundant everywhere. Wild hogs, foxes, squirrels, martens are rather numerous. The number of wolves has shrunk. The beaver was entirely exterminated, but now it has been reacclimatized. Their houses are frequent on the banks of many rivers. New species of animals such as punctate deer, minks have been acclimatized. They feel quit at home and bear offspring. We have 300 species of birds. In forests we can hear voices of woodpeckers, cuckoos, owls, hawks and others. In rivers, lakes and swamps are various species of ducks, geese, and swans, where they hatch their young. In Neringa there is a settlement of grey herons, rare birds. There are about 50 species of fish in Lithuania. We can't boast that abound in our lakes and rivers. Bream, roach, salmon, eels, carps are caught. Salmon comes to our rivers to spawn.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (22,04 kB)
Lithuanian flora consists of deciduous trees, coniferous wood, mixed forests and bushes. Deciduous trees are oak, birch, alder, lime and others. Fir and pine are from coniferous wood. Mixed forests compose the biggest part of Lithuanian flora. Many animals are involved in Red book in Lithuania. Hunters don’t think about damage which they make hunting animals. In my opinion, national parks and conservation areas are necessary in Lithuania. These places protect our forests from cutting, animals don’t disappear.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2 psl., 9,38 kB)
Angliški išsireiškimai, visi turėtų būti teisingi, nes dirbta su gera anglų mokytoja.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (5 psl., 12,88 kB)
The Sahara is the world's second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2.5 million years old. The entire land area of the United States of America would fit inside it. Its name Sahara صحراء is the Arabic translation of the Tuareg word Tenere meaning desert.
Geografija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 23,94 kB)
Here are facts showing the dangers of eating meat because of the large amounts of antibiotics fed to livestock to control staphylococci (commonly called staph infections), which are becoming immune to these drugs at an alarming rate. The animals that are being raised for meat in the United States are diseased. The livestock industry attempts to control this disease by feeding the animals antibiotics. Huge quantities of drugs go for this purpose. Of all antibiotics used in the U.S., 55% are fed to livestock.
Cocaine (Kokainas)
2009-09-01
Cocaine's recent notoriety belies the fact that the drug has been used as a stimulant by people for thousands of years. Its properties as a stimulant have led people in the past to use it in a number of patent medicines and even in soft drinks. But cocaine's highly addictive nature and addicts' willingness to pay a high price for the drug have propelled it into the public eye. The crime and violence associated with its transportation and sale, and the celebrity nature of some of its victims has kept cocaine in the news.
Chemija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 3,9 kB)
Lithuania is a very beautiful country. It is very rich with many plants and animals. But of course we must save what we have. The most beautiful part of nature is our thick forests. They cover 27,9% our all territory. So we can admire our woods. But they are not like they were 5 or 6 hundred ago. Then our forests were just inpassable and full of different animals. But many people have cut these beautiful woods and now we have only 18,000 separate plots. But now when people understand the threat of extinction and many organisations plant new pine forests.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2 psl., 4,6 kB)
Drugs
2009-08-06
Drug dependence. Opioids. Stimulants. Hallucinogens. Cannabis. Inhalants. Drug dependence, psychological and sometimes physical state characterized by a compulsion to take a drug in order to experience its psychological effects. Psychological dependence, or habituation, is present when the compulsion to take a drug is strong, even in the absence of physical withdrawal symptoms.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (6 psl., 124,12 kB)
Having a Pet
2009-07-16
Anglų kalbos kalbėjimo tema.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 3,43 kB)
Clean up the World
2009-07-10
The work of ecology. Air’s pollution. Earht’s pollution. Water’s pollution. The End. Olden time’s people lived in accord with the nature. Later, when the humanity have created powerful machines, various chemical materials, learned to govern the nuclear energy, there appeared lots of ecological problems. The most important elements of our surroundings ­- air, water and soil are more and more polluted.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4 psl., 9,09 kB)
Entertainment
2009-07-09
In every century, in every age, after hard working people needed to do things that are making them feel good. This is what we call – entertainment. As every epoch has its own fashion, music style, political system, so it also has very distinctive types of entertainment. Let’s start with the very beginning of the human evolution. Yes, even Stone Age had several types of distraction. As we know, people of that time, used to hunt animals for food. It was not easy to hunt mammoths, wild boars or bears.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2,84 kB)
Nowadays the air, water and soil pollution have become a really big problem. Humanity thinks too little about natural resources and future of our descendants, as well as the world face, the disappearance of rainforests and global warming. The rapidly developing industry has polluted the air and the water. People, animals and plants are closely connected to each other. The usual order being broken, the nature starts to clean itself in a way that is harmful to the man himself.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (3,68 kB)
Air pollution
2009-07-09
I would like to talk about air pollution, becouse it is one of the major problems of the planet. Air pollution is made up of many kinds of gases, droplets and particles that reduce the quality of the air. Air can be polluted in both the city and the country. In the city, cars, buses and airplanes, as well as industry and construction may cause air pollution. In the country, dust from tractors plowing fields, trucks and cars driving on dirt or gravel roads, rock quarries and smoke from wood and crop fires may cause air pollution. Ground-level ozone is the major part of air pollution in most cities.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,85 kB)
One student even has a snake. Internet survey showed that more than a half of questioned people have pets. And our survey showed that only 30% of students have pets and only 10% wants to have pet in the future. Cats are more common with girls than boys and even 60% of students don’t have pets. At present only 5% of students have more than one pet and only three students have two dogs.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (0,67 kB)
Lithuania
2009-07-09
Lithuania is situated on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea and borders Latvia on the north, Belarus on the east and south, and Poland and the Kaliningrad region of Russia on the southwest. It is a country of gently rolling hills, many forests, rivers and streams, and lakes. Its principal natural resource is agricultural land. Government. Parliamentary democracy. History. The Liths, or Lithuanians, united in the 12th century under the rule of Mindaugas, who became king in 1251.
Geografija  Referatai   (9,82 kB)
SIngapore
2009-07-09
Singapore founded as a British trading colony in 1819, Singapore joined Malaysia in 1963, but withdrew two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries, with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe. Singapore is a city-country, locating in the south of Malaya.
Geografija  Namų darbai   (6,35 kB)
Kastracija – tai lytinių liaukų pašalinimas arba jų funkcijos sustabdymas. Lytinių liaukų funkcija gali būti sustabdoma įvairiais būdais: sutrikdant jų aprūpinimą krauju ir pažeidžiant nervus, vartojant cheminius arba hormoninius preparatus, švitinant radioaktyviais spinduliais, taip pat iš viso pašalinant lytines liaukas. Veterinarijoje dažniausiai tuo tikslu taikoma chirurginė kastracija – kiaušidžių šalinimas (ovarioektomija) arba šalinimas kiaušidžių kartu su gimda (ovariohisteroektomija).
Medicina  Referatai   (7,08 kB)
Vitamins
2009-07-09
All living things, plant or animal, need vitamins for health, growth, and reproduction. Yet vitamins are not a source of calories and do not contribute significantly to body mass. The plant or animal uses vitamins as tools in processes that regulate chemical activities in the organism and that use basic food elements-carbohydrates, fats, and proteins-to form tissues and to produce energy.Vitamins can be used over and over, and only tiny amounts are needed to replace those that are lost.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,99 kB)
About dinosaurs
2009-07-09
One of the smallest dinosaurs known, Compsognathus grew only about as large as a chicken, but with a length of about 60–90 cm (2–3 feet), including the long tail, and a weight of about 5.5 kg (12 pounds). A swift runner, it was lightly built and had a long neck and tail, strong hind… The Compsognathus is the smallest dinosaur in the Jurassic Period. It only ran on its two back legs. Its shape allows it to run fast and swiftly. This can help it to run from all the predators. Its top speed was twetny-five miles per hour. It was the size of a chicken. It was only two and a half feet long including the tail. its height was only one foot tall. It weighed only ten pounds.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (2,12 kB)
The Tower Of London
2009-07-09
The Tower of London has a very interesting story behind it. It was begun by a man who was not even English, William of Normandy. At the time he was the cousin of England's King Edward. It all started because William became outraged when Edward backed down on his promise to give the throne to William and ended up giving the throne to his English brother-in-law, Harold. William sailed his army across the English Channel to conquer England.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (2,96 kB)
American English
2009-07-09
In the early part of the seventeenth century English settlers began to bring their language to America, and another series of changes began to take place. The settlers borrowed words from Indian languages for such strange trees as the hickory and persimmon, such unfamiliar animals as raccoons and woodchucks. Later they borrowed other words from settlers from other countries – for instance, chowder and prairie from the French, scow and sleigh from the Dutch.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (2,86 kB)
Lithuania's nature is as beautiful as it is diverse. The country's national parks reflect the landscape and culture of its large geographical areas. The thirty regional parks protect and represent the most valuable ecosystems and cultural treasures of different regions from natural, ethno cultural, recreational and aesthetic points of view. The wide variety of wildlife in the parks includes the protected species of animals listed in THE RED DATA BOOK (Lithuania's endangered species list), and rare plants. Research programmes are being carried out in the parks' sanctuaries and reserves. Large areas have been designated as recreational sites.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (7,37 kB)
Cat's
2009-07-09
A group of cats is referred to as a clowder, a male cat is called a tom, and a female is called a queen. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire, and its female progenitor is its dam. An immature cat is called a kitten (which is also an alternative name for young rats, rabbits, hedgehogs, beavers, squirrels and skunks). In medieval Britain, the word kitten was interchangeable with the word catling. A cat whose ancestry is formally registered is called a pedigreed cat, purebred cat, or a show cat (although not all show cats are pedigreed or purebred). In strict terms, a purebred cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (23,62 kB)
New Year
2009-07-09
New Year - conditional start of the Calendar year. Ancient Lithuanian, national holidays calendar, shows that the beginning of the New Year during ancient times had no fixed date. According to ethnographers’ thinking, the abundant agrarian rites with sun and fire elements of worship, winter’s burial, preparation for spring works traditions could signify the New Year start. Later the new Year was identified with Easter, which is bound with plant vegetation and start of outdoor work.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (4,91 kB)
Did you know that the can opener was invented 48 years after cans were introduced? Cans were opened with a hammer and chisel before the advent of can openers. A Londoner, Peter Durand, invented the tin canister, or can, in 1810 for preserving food. There were no can openers yet, and the products labels would read: "cut around on the top near to outer edge with a chisel and hammer." The first can opener was invented in 1858 by American Ezra Warned. The well-known wheel-style opener was invented in 1925. Beer in a can was launched in 1935.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (6,59 kB)
Discuss the following statements. Which of them could be used to define culture? Before reading the text, explain in your own words what is meant by culture. Work in small groups or pairs and then share your ideas in the classroom .
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (4,73 kB)
Crime
2009-07-09
Today’s teenagers have many drugs in their bodies crack, cocaine and many deadly weapons in their hands. Guns in the guns of teenagers and violence on TV and in films may be problems, but they are not the only ones. Children spend too much time hanging out. The positively example of family, shool, religion have grown weak and ineffective. Young single mothers are unprepared for child rearing… Many boys do not have the example to a strong positive male model.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (3,34 kB)
Anglų kalba
2009-07-09
Everyone wants to live clean, nice and tidy. We like to look at somewhere and say: “What a niece place! How wonderful! Just like in heaven!”. But what are we doing to make the surrounding like this? To my mind just nothing… On the contrary – we do much more to destroy our environment. Living conditions in the world are getting worse and worse. Exhaust fumes and smoke from factories are polluting the air, trees are cutting down, and streets are full rubbish and grime. Furthermore rivers are being polluted by chemicals from factories too.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (4,89 kB)
Canada and all of the developed countries in the world produce some kind of toxic waste(s). It doesn't matter whether it's a chocolate bar wrapper or a canister of highly radioactive plutonium, they're potentially dangerous to us and/or our natural environment unless properly disposed of. Toxic waste is defined as any waste that is hazardous to human health or to our natural environment. According to the Institute of Chemical Waste Management, about 15% of our garbage is classified as toxic, and only 85% (approximately) of that is disposed of properly. The rest is either illegally dumped or accidentally mixed up with non-toxic garbage.
Modal Verbs
2009-07-09
The great German poet Goethe once said, “He, who knows no foreign language, doesn’t know his own once”. Today English language is the language of the world. English is not only the national or official language of some thirty states that represent different cultures, but it is also the major international language of communication in such areas as science, technology, business and mass entertainment. It is also the major language of diplomacy. No doubt that we must know English very well.
Pollution
2009-07-09
I’m going to speak about some kinds of pollution, for example air pollution or acid rain, water pollution. Now different kinds of trees, many of the animals, birds, fish are in serious danger. What should government do to stop the polluting, nowadays? First of all I would like to speak about water pollution There is no ocean or sea which is not used as a dump. Many rivers and lakes are poisoned, too. Fish and reptiles can’t live in them.
Referatas VU. Įvertinimas 10. Labai geras darbas. Language studies traditionally have emphasized verbal and written language, but in the late dozens of years have begun to consider communication that takes place without words. In some types of...
Paukščiai
2009-07-09
Moose Class: Mammalia: Mammals Diet: Plants Order: Artiodactyla: Even-toed Ungulates Size: body: 2.5 - 3 m (8 1/4 - 9 3/4 ft), tail: 5 - 7.5 cm (2 - 3 in) Family: Cervidae: Deer Conservation Status: Non-threatened. Scientific Name: Alces alces Habitat: coniferous forest, often near lakes and rivers Range: Northern Europe and Asia: Scandinavia to Siberia; Alaska, Canada, Northern U.S.A.; introduced in New Zealand. The largest of the deer, the moose is identified by its size, its broad, overhanging muzzle and the flap of skin, known as the bell, hanging from its throat.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5,01 kB)
Feast of St.John
2009-07-09
From ancient times people marked the time of the return of the sun, the shortest and longest night. In olden times it was called the Feast of the DEWS, [ a.k.a. RASOS ]. When Christianity was established in Lithuania, the name was changed to Feast of St. John, according to agrarian folk calendar, the start of haying. The rituals of the longest day were closely related to agrarian ideas and notions.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (8,08 kB)
Present Simple – everyday/year, often, sometimes, usually, seldom, always, never, at weekends, on Mondays …Po when, as, while, before, after, as soon as, until, if; taip pat po who, which, that pgr. sakinys būsimasis, o šalutinis būtinai esamasis. Present Continuous (to be talking) – now, at the(this) moment; su įsiterpusiais always, constantly, for ever. Present perfect (to have talked) – just, already, yet, lately, recently, so far, ever, never, before. Baigtam veiksmui su today, this morning/afternoon/evening/week/month/year, kai jie reiškia nepasibaigųsį laiką. Nepasibaigusiam veiksmui su for ir since.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (4,32 kB)
Nutrients
2009-07-09
Darbas anglų kalba apie anglevandenius, vitaminus, riebalus. What you eat has a life long effect on your health and well-being. To look and feel your best, you have to eat adequate amounts of the proper foods. Many teenagers don't always choose the food that is best for them. They may not want to eat what the rest of the family is eating or they may eat poorly at school. The food at the school cafeteria is required by law in the United States to meet certain nutritional standards, but you may not be eating their food. There are six types of nutrients: protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water.
Pramonė  Referatai   (5,85 kB)
Maisto saugos vadybos sistemos projektas. Anglų kalba. Projektas buvo pristatytas Kopenhagos universitete, Danijoje. Darbas buvo yvertintas labai gerai. Vertas dėmesio studijuojantiems maisto pramonę.
Pramonė  Referatai   (14,77 kB)
Darbas apie fizines bausmes taikomas vaikams, jų pasekmės, kilmė, priežastys, įtaka auklėjimo raidai. Darbas susijęs su psichologija. Prievarta prieš vaikus egzistavo per amžius. Jos vertinimas ir supratimas skyrėsi ir skiriasi priklausomai nuo laikmečio, socialinio, kultūros - ekonominio lygmens. Visuomenėje pastaruoju metu vis daugiau dėmesio skiriama prievartos ir žiaurumo atvejų skaičiaus didėjimui. Pastaruoju metui vis dažniau viešumon iškyla, nors tik reti ir atskiri, prievartos prieš vaikus atvejai.
Psichologija  Referatai   (10,83 kB)
Anglų kalbos temos
2009-07-09
Personal identification I’m Darius. I was born in 1978 on the 21th of February in Kaunas. I don’t remember anything about the weather that day, but I know that it was about 2:30 p.m. I was the first child in the family. Our family is not very big, I have a brother. When I was a child I can't say, that I was a good boy. My parents always want me to be a good man, and now I'm very thankful for that.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (15,57 kB)
Įvairių dalykų pliusai ir minusai, gali praversti rašiniams, kalbėjimo įskaitai. Access a lot of information, do some jobs very quickly, communicate very quickly, word processors make it easier to write letters and reports, and to do work for school, make learning more exciting, large amount of information can be stored.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2,31 kB)
Christmas
2009-07-09
Almost everyone in Lithuania has a Christmas tree in their home which is decorated with electric lights and ornaments purchased in the store. There are some people who still follow the old traditions and use hand crafted ornaments to decorate the tree. It is done especially if the family has little children who like to make ornaments from paper or something else in order to put them on the branches of the tree.
Shrove Tuesday is a merry carnival. It is celebrated on Tuesday, the eve of Ash Wednesday, to mark the winter’s end.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1,19 kB)
Application letter,order, complain letter, cv -exaples.
I would like to start my individual project with describing of Vilnius Castle Complex. I have been living not far away and can wonder time, when I see it. How beautiful and interesting it is! The Vilnius Castle Complex is a group of defensive, cultural and religious buildings on the left bank of the Neris River, near the inflow the Vilnia River, in Vilnius.
Kursinis darbas buvo įvertintas 9 balais. Pristatytas Klaipėdos verslo kolegijoje. "Bakery" means a business producing, preparing, storing, or displaying bakery products intended for sale for human consumption. Several objective and subjective methods are being used for controlling quality of bakery products such as loaf volume, crust color, grain and texture of crumb in case of bread, and spread, raise, crispness etc, in case of biscuits and cookies.
Internet
2009-07-09
The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW).
Anglų kalba  Kursiniai darbai   (15,94 kB)
Drug
2009-07-09
Drug, substance that affects the function of living cells, used in medicine to diagnose, cure, prevent the occurrence of diseases and disorders, and prolong the life of patients with incurable conditions. Since 1900 the availability of new and more effective drugs such as antibiotics, which fight bacterial infections, and vaccines, which prevent diseases caused by bacteria and viruses, has increased the average American’s life span from about 60 years to about 75 years. Drugs have vastly improved the quality of life.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (11,98 kB)
Hawaii
2009-07-09
Hawaii is a group of islands located in the centre of the Pacific Ocean that became the 50th state of the United States of America in 1959. The 130 islands are of volcanic origin. Only seven of the eight major islands are inhibated :Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, Hawaii's Big Island… GEOGRAPHY Hawaii is the most remote island chain in the world, over 2,000 miles from the nearest landfall. Distance makes for splendid isolation - these Polynesian islands are removed from all else but one another.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (7,33 kB)
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, is about a young boy, Huck, in search of freedom and adventure.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (11,73 kB)
Literature genres
2009-07-09
Literatūros žanrai. Haiku is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka Shiki of the older hokku. The traditional haiku consisted of a pattern of 5, 7, 5 on. The Japanese word on, meaning "sound". Haiku usually combine three different lines, with a distinct grammatical break, called kireji, usually placed at the end of either the first five or second seven morae.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (6,38 kB)
Enviroment
2009-07-09
Neblogai įvertinas tekstas. The main topic of my individual talk will be about living surroundings. In addition, I will give some pieces of advice how to live in a clean and healthy enviroment. First, I would like to say that no human could stand being apart from enviroment becouse each of us is a part of the natural world. As you know, we are dependable from enviroment.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (1,83 kB)
Kauno Saulės gimnazija, gauta iš kalbėjimo 10. I am from Kaunas, my address is Baltijos seventy-nine, flat nine, I was born on the ……………th of ………….. in Kaunas, thus I am nineteen now. I am male, and still single as I think I am not mature enough to marry. Thus, I have no children.
Do zoos serve a useful purpose, or are they unfair to animals? During the last few years there has been noticed a great development of zoos. Some people think that such places are entertaining or even needed. However in my opinion zoos should be banned for numerous reasons. The first argument against zoos, which I would like to present, is that in fact in most cases animals are kept there against their nature. Nowadays people are used to keeping animals at home, though these are just a few species and they have been domesticated for centuries.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (1,24 kB)
Italy
2009-07-09
Italy (in Italian, Italia), republic in southern Europe, bordered on the north by Switzerland and Austria; on the east by Slovenia and the Adriatic Sea; on the south by the Ionian Sea and the Mediterranean Sea; on the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Ligurian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea; and on the north-west by France.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (4,69 kB)
Opinion Letter: Child Labor According to the International Labor Organization there are approximately 250 million working children between the ages of 5 and 14. Somewhat around 120 million of them are performing in their jobs on a full time basis. Another half combines with school and other non-economic activities. Impressive numbers, aren’t they?
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (4,81 kB)
Agnes grey
2009-07-09
“Agnes Grey” by Anne Bronte is a strongly autobiographical novel portraying the world of a governess in the mid-nineteen century and examining social manners and the lack of moral perceptions. Drawing on her own experience the author of this book tries to reveal the position of a young, educated girl who sets out into the world to take up the only respectable career open to her – that of governess.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (3,66 kB)
In ancient times, commercial and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii. Egyptians used papyrus to create sales messages and wall posters.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (20,72 kB)
Palyginimas darželių, mokyklų ir rebilitacijos klinikos Norvegijoje ir Lietuvoje. Darbas pristatytas Agderio universitete Norvegijoje.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (8,8 kB)
Lithuania has nature and beautiful landscapes. And yet many plants and animals cannot survive without protected areas. We must protect nature from people - and for people. Any species can be leaded into extinct if they are hunted, polluted or infected. One of the smallest species vanishing in nature can cause irretrievable affect to others one’s. This is because all of species are involved into the natural chain of sustenance.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 3,13 kB)
The American people
2009-05-19
American Friendliness. The Violent American. American Provincialism. Americans can be very generous. Once a girlfriend and I hitchhiked from Los Angeles to San Francisco. What I liked was that the people who picked up were very worried about us. They always wanted to help us. One couple asked us if we wanted money so that we could take a bus instead of hitchhiking.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5 psl., 5,73 kB)
Pagalba ruošiantis anglų kalbos egzamino kalbėjimo daliai.
Lietuvių kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (8 psl., 19,36 kB)