Referatai, kursiniai, diplominiai

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Darbas anglų kalbą,apie nedarbingumą Airijoje, nedarbingumo tipus,priežastis bei galimus sprendimus. Tai pat Airijos valstybės iniciatyvas kovojant su nedarbingumo lygiu.
Ekonomika  Analizės   (14 psl., 138,35 kB)
Kalba ir amzius
2011-04-08
yra sektiek duomenu apie iskaitos poteme "kaip kinta lietuviu kalba keiciantis visuomenes komunikacines reiksmes" nzn gal pades jums.
Lietuvių kalba  Referatai   (15 psl., 26,96 kB)
Anglu ese apie rukymo draudima. 10 klasei
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 6,59 kB)
Šiandieniniame gyvenime mes gana dažnai mes susiduriame su agresyviai nusiteikusiais žmonėmis. Tai ypač ryškiai pasireiškia jaunimo tarpe. Yra labai daug šitą nulemiančių veiksnių. Žmogaus agresyvumas priklauso tai bendravimo klasei, kuri gali būti suprasta tik išnagrinėjus daug mokslinių disciplinų-natūralių ir socialinių. Taip remiantis visa eile natūralinių mokslų-biologija, biochemija, genetika ir t.t,buvo padarytos išvados leidžiančios pradėti agresyvumo gilesnį tyrimą. Čia nemažai reikšmės turi ir socialiniai mokslai, nes agresyvumo įsivaizduoti kur nors kitur nei pačioje visuomenėje, paprasčiausiai neįmanoma, kaip ir negalima paaiškinti pačios visuomenės, nežinant agresyvaus elgesio įpatumų ir jį sukeliančių veiksnių.
Kita  Referatai   (4 psl., 13,31 kB)
Finansų teisės savarankiškas darbas PENSIJŲ SOCIALINIS DRAUDIMAS LIETUVOJE IR VOKIETIJOJE
Teisė  Referatai   (17 psl., 66,66 kB)
ĮVADAS 1. Konkurencinis pranašumas 1.1. Konkurencijos ir konkurencingumo sąvokos, jų įvairovė 1.2. M.Porter‘io penkių konkurencinių jėgų modelis 1.3. Konkurencinių strateginių grupių žemėlapis ir jo teikiama nauda 1.4. Konkurencingumo analizė 2. UAB „Kosmelita“ veiklos tyrimas ir vertinimas 2.1. Bendrovės veiklos apibūdinimas 2.2. Bendrovės veiklą įtakojantys veiksniai 2.3. Rinkos tyrimas 2.3.1. Parduotuvės „Eurokos“ užimama padėtis kosmetikos ir tualeto reikmenų mažmeninės prekybos specializuotų parduotuvių rinkoje 20 2.3.2. Konkurentų analizė pagal strategines grupes 2.3.3. Parduotuvės konkurencingumo analizė 2.3.4. Konkurentų analizė pagal M. Porter‘io modelį 2.4. Vartotojų nuomonės tyrimas 2.4.1. Tyrimo apibūdinimas 2.4.2. Tyrimo rezultatų analizė 2.5. Konkurencinio pranašumo didinimo pagrindinės sritys ir galimybės IŠVADOS IR PASIŪLYMAI LITERATŪRA 1 priedas- Anketa Temos aktualumas. Pastaraisiais metais dažnai girdime kalbant apie įsikuriančias naujas įmones, bankrutuojančias senas ir, žinoma, konkurenciją tarp esančių. Šiandien plačiai vystantis verslui atsirandanti vis didesnė įmonių įvairovė sąlygoja didėjančią tarpusavio konkurenciją. Tai skatina ieškoti naujų būdų atlaikyti konkurenciją. Geras pirkėjo aptarnavimas yra vienas iš veiksnių, garantuojančių įmonės sėkmę, be to jis padeda įgyti tvirtą konkurencinį pranašumą, užtikrinti pelningumą ir sėkmę ateityje. Svarbiausias kokybės vertintojas yra vartotojas ir įmonės tikslas yra jį patenkinti. Tai įmanoma tik gerai pažinus savo klientus ir išsiaiškinus jų poreikius. Vartotojų poreikių žinojimas įgalina įmonę efektyviau juos patenkinti, todėl visi procesai turi vykti taip, kad vartotojas būtų laimingas ir sugrįžtų.
Vadyba  Diplominiai darbai   (43 psl., 401,53 kB)
Siekdama produktyvumo, organizacija turi sukurti ir išlaikyti griežtą vidinę dermę ir sanderme su aplinka. Tai gali būti pasiekiama veiksmingu strateginiu planavimu, pagrįstu aplinkos veiksnių kitimo krypties ir laiko bei pačios organizacijos elgesio aiškiu supratimu. Verslo organizacija, siekdama sėkmės, turi sugebėti nuolat atsižvelgti į besikeičiančią aplinką. Ji privalo numatyti išorinių veiksnių poveikį ir užimti tokią pozicija, kad palankių galimybių dėka įgautų pranašumą ir išvengtų grėsmių, susijusių su aplinkos permainomis.
Administravimas  Kursiniai darbai   (34 psl., 57,33 kB)
Economy
2010-12-01
Introduction. How are consumer preferences used to determine demand? How do consumers allocate income to the purchase of different goods? How do consumers with limited income decide what to buy?
Ekonomika  Konspektai   (7 psl., 14,22 kB)
Darbas ekonomikoje – esminis gerovės šaltinis ir konkurencingumo prielaida. Susiformavus darbo rinkai, atsirado ir nedarbas, kuris suprantamas kaip darbo pasiūlos ir paklausos disbalansas, tai – pagrindinė įvairių šalių darbo rinkos problema, kuri šiuo metu aktuali ir Lietuvoje. Su nedarbo problema Lietuva susiduria nuo nepriklausomybės atkūrimo. Pirmosios nedarbo priežastys tuo laikotarpiu buvo intensyviai vykdomos reformos, planinio ūkio transformacija į rinkos ūkį bei užsilikę sovietiniai reliktai. Vienas iš pagrindinių ekonomikos teiginių yra tas, kad bet kokie ekonominio mechanizmo pokyčiai tiesiogiai ar netiesiogiai sukelia užimtumo pokyčius. Naujumas, aktualumas. Šiuo metu dažnai pasaulyje minima problema yra nedarbas. Jis sukelia ne tik ekonominius, bet ir įvairius socialinius neigiamus padarinius. Masinis darbuotojų atleidimas, gyvenimo lygio smukimas, artėjimas prie skurdo ribos, žmonių dvejonės dėl laukiančio rytojaus, nedarbo nulemtų kitų makroekonominių rodiklių blogėjimas – visa tai linksniuojama kiekvieną dieną. Visi supranta šio reiškinio didėjančią grėsmę ir stengiasi ieškoti būdų, kaip užkirsti tam kelią. Šiame darbe bus nagrinėjama situacija Lietuvos darbo rinkoje nuo nepriklausomybės atkūrimo iki šių dienų, bandysime išsiaiškinti, kaip buvo kovojama su nedarbu bei jo sukeltomis pasekmėmis, kas yra daroma dabar ir kokių teigiamų bei neigiamų perspektyvų galima tikėtis.
Ekonomika  Kursiniai darbai   (71 psl., 898,7 kB)
The century is characterized by great diversity of artistic values & methods. This age had a great impact on the literary process. Variety of social, ethic & aesthetic attitudes. New achievements in science have their impact on literature. Literature absorbs & transforms the material of their influences: The First World War Russian Revolution Freud’s psychoanalysis Bergson’s philosophy of subjective idealism Einstein’s theory of relativity Existentialists thought Economic crises 1919-1921 & consequent upheaval of social movement Marxist ideology Strike 1926
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (37,13 kB)
Labour relations
2010-09-22
In this paper we will analyze regulation of labour relations, speak about management problems in the companies looking from the law side. Besides analyze labor rights, their disputes, individual labour disputes and the labour disputes considered in courts.
Teisė  Referatai   (16 psl., 26,11 kB)
Asocialiu žmogumi, ko gero, šiandien esame linkę laikyti “tarpuvarčių ir šiluminių mazgų gyventojus”, dar – girtuokliaujančias motinas, atsisakančias auginti savo vaikus, dar – jų pamestinukus, kuriems nepasisekė papulti į Vaikų globos namus... Atrodo, kad tokius asmenis sugrąžinti į normalų gyvenimą dėl juos ištikusių socialinių ar psichologinių problemų, o dar dažniau - dėl jų pačių nenoro beveik neįmanoma. Kadangi šio referato tikslas – aptarti psichologinę asocialaus elgesio profilaktiką, mėginsime susipažinti su asocialaus elgesio samprata, nukrypimo kriterijais, formomis ir pasiaiškinti, kaip užkirsti kelią asocialios asmenybės formavimuisi bei padėti asocialiems asmenims sugrįžti į normalų gyvenimą. Taip pat aptarsime, ką reiktų daryti norint apsisaugoti nuo asocialaus elgesio, kokios organizacijos galetų padėti. Referato pabaigoje apžvelgsime padėtį Lietuvoje,augančio skurdo ir nedarbo problemas didinančias asocialių asmenų skaičių.
Psichologija  Referatai   (12 psl., 72,4 kB)
Šiame straipsnyje siekiama išskirti veiksnius, kurie svarbūs valdymui pokyčių kontekste. Šiuolaikiniame pasaulyje akivaizdus valstybių ir visuomenių suartėjimas. Kalbant apie pokyčius, neišvengiamai kyla klausimų apie mūsų ateitį. Teisingas pokyčių ir jų padarinių numatymas dar šiandien leistų organizacijų vadovams keisti strategijas ir pasirengti rytdienai. Tai garantuotų konkurencinį pranašumą ir sėkmingą organizacijų veiklą. Pagrindinių kaitos poveikio sričių nustatymas yra viena svarbiausių šiandienos vadybos mokslo problemų.
Ekonomika  Tyrimai   (7 psl., 31,14 kB)
63 anglų topikai
2010-05-31
BALANCED DIET, CINEMA, CRIME, ENVIRONMENT, EUROPEAN UNION & NATO, FOREIGN LANGUAGES, HISTORY OF CHRISTMAS, JUNK FOOD, LITHUANIA IN 50 YEARS’ TIME, MASS MEDIA, PROFILE EDUCATION, SMOKING & DRUGS, SPORT,TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, TRANSPORT....
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (42 psl., 53,24 kB)
Beveik kiekvienas žmogus pradeda gyvenimą šeimoje. Kartais atsitinka, kad tėvai negali auginti savo vaiko. Šeimos patirties nebuvimas gali būti pražūtingas žmonėms, nebent yra kažkoks tinkamas pakaitalas. Čia bus kalbama apie šeimą, kaip apie pačią svarbiausia daugiaasmenę sąveiką. Pasak L.C. Johnson (2003), daugiaasmenėje sąveikoje kiekvienas žmogus stengiasi atsakyti į pagrindinį klausymą “ Ar aš galiu būti asmenybe ir ar gali mane kiti mylėti?” Žmonių santykiams labai svarbi įtampa atsirandanti tenkinant savo poreikius ir kartu palaikant santykius su kitais. Iš pradžių ši įtampa pasireiškia šeimoje tarp mažo vaiko ir jo tėvo.
Komunikacijos  Konspektai   (121 psl., 173,65 kB)
To begin with i`d like to say that alcoholism is widely spread among young people and because of that it has become a serious national problem. Alcohol is widely used by young people. Around 90 per cent of european teenagers over the age of 14 years have tried alcohol at least once. ‘Binge drinking’, drink driving and unsafe sex can all result from the misuse of alcohol.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (2 psl., 4,75 kB)
ES institucijos
2010-04-09
Kaip ir kiekviena valstybė, Europos Sąjunga negalėtų funkcionuoti be įstatymų leidžiamosios, vykdomosios ir teisminės valdžios. Šioms funkcijoms įgyvendinti Europos Sąjunga visų valstybių narių bendru susitarimu įsteigė penkias pagrindines institucijos- Tarybą, Komisiją, Europos Parlamentą, Teisingumo Teismą ir Audito Rūmus- ir dvi patariamąjį statusą turinčias institucijas- Ekonomikos ir socialinių reikalų komitetą bei Regionų komitetą. Be šių institucijų ES veikia papildomos institucijos.Šios institucijos priima sprendimus, remiantis kuriais sukuriamas pagrindas ES funkcionavimui.
Politologija  Referatai   (14 psl., 28,83 kB)
Šiuo projektu mes norime atlikti lino gaminių eksporto iš Lietuvos į Švediją studiją. Lietuvoje esanti kompanija pirks iš vietinių gamintojų lino gaminius: drabužius, staltieses, užuolaidas, patalynės komplektus, servetėles, įvairias stiliaus dekoracijas, audinius bei įvairią šalies tautinę atributiką. Ši produkcija bus vežama jūrų keliu iš Klaipėdos į Švediją, Stokholmą, kur išsinuomosime prekybines patalpas savo lininiams gaminiams realizuoti. Manome, kad prekės kelionė paprastai truks keletą dienų, tačiau iki pirmosios kelionės reikės atlikti Stokholmo miesto rinkos analizę, nustatyti, kur turėtų būti mūsų parduotuvė, kokie yra potencialūs pirkėjai, kokius kiekius ten galima parduoti ir pan. Įmonės projekto įgyvendinimui reikalingi ištekliai būtų produkcija (lininiai gaminiai), finansinės lėšos, žmogiškasis kapitalas (visi darbuotojai, jų fizinis bei protinis darbas), verslo ištekliai, nekilnojamas turtas bei informacija. Projekto pradžioje turėtų būti įtraukti įvairūs specialistai, konsultuojantys įmonės vadovus apie verslo galimybes bei perspektyvas Švedijoje.
Ekonomika  Projektai   (50 psl., 89,16 kB)
Anglu kalbos prezentacija apie nedarbo lygį ir infliaciją.
Anglų kalba  Projektai   (23 psl., 373,36 kB)
Purpose: to analyze the changes of women’s roles and education, to review critical attitude to the book “The Mill on the Floss”. Mary Ann (Marian) Evans (1819 –1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. She was one of the leading writers of the Victorian era. Her novels, largely set in provincial England, are well known for their realism and psychological insight. She used a male pen name, she said, to ensure that her works were taken seriously. An additional factor may have been a desire to shield her private life from public scrutiny and to prevent scandals attending her relationship with the married George Henry Lewes. She was educated at home and in several schools, and developed a strong evangelical piety.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (20 psl., 513,96 kB)
Environment
2010-02-09
Many people believe that the way we live our lives today is having an extremely bad effect on the environment. Here are some examples of environmental problems and solutions. Pollution - is damage to the air, sea, rivers, or land caused by chemicals, waste and harmful gases. Pollutants include toxic waste, pesticides, and fertilizers.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 5,4 kB)
Good afternoon, everyone. I’m here today to speak of labour market in Lithuania in recent years, especially after integration to EU. This talk is divided into 4 main parts. 1) Firstly, I’d like to look at Official situation of Lithuanian labour market through the recent years 2) Secondly I’ll be talking about Jobs in shortage and demand and Need of high Qualification 3) Thirdly, Emigration from Lithuania in 1990-2002 4) My fourth point will be about Emigration from Lithuania after entering EU and the wages. Finally I’ll be looking at the conclusions ________ My talk will last about 15 min If you have any questions, please stop me at any time, and I will be happy to answer them Official situation of Lithuanian labour market through the recent years Having rewieved the changes which have taken place in Lithuania since the restoration of independence in 1990, it can be said that the market economy in Lithuania is becoming stronger and that this process is irreversible. This period has seen the creation in Lithuania of a consistent system for the realization of social security and labour market policies. The labour market in Lithuania has in the recent past been characterised by positive changes influenced by the implementation of the country’s investment and economic policies as well as the means used to realize the Lithuanian Republic’s employment programme: the number of employed is increasing, the number of people out of work is decreasing along with unemployment rate. The fundamental right to social security and work is provided for by Article 48 of the1992 Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, which states that every person is free to do the job or business of their choice, and that they have the right to suitable, safe and healthy work conditions, to receive fair payment for work, and social security if they are unemployed. The work of foreign nationals in the Republic of Lithuania is regulated by law. Researches made by interviewing people out of work, give us the numbers of 75 % of those, registered the jobless in Labour Exchange really wanna find a job, and there is yearly a downward numbers interested just in unemployment relief. Labour market suppose that in year 2004 the number of the unemployed in average can be around 145 000, this is 20 000 less than the year before.
I have a computer as well. I need my computer for doing my homework or just for spending my free time. I use programs such us Microsoft Word, Excel, Win amp, Nero and so on. I spend few hours a day working on a computer. But sometimes (if I have a lot of to do) I spend almost all day working on a computer. If I have free time, sometimes I spend it playing computer games. But it isn’t very often. My favorite computer games are the following: X, X, X and others. It is interesting question about advantages and disadvantages of having a computer at home or at school. The main disadvantage of computers is that staring at a screen for long periods of time can be damaging to eyes, and sitting on a chair for hours at a time is certainly not healthy. Secondly, computers distract from social interactions such as conversation. Also, people can be inclined to become anti-social and stay at home in front of their computers for ages. Finally, the most persuasive argument against the using computers is that more and more are done by computers and less are done by people. That means that not only unemployment is increasing, but people become lazier not even to do anything, but to think as well. However, the advantages of computers are numerous, such us undeniable educational benefits, especially for children. School subjects become more interesting when they are presented on a computer screen. Moreover, computers can be fun with a seemingly endless variety of games which can be played on computers. In addition, computers are valuable to any business, making life easier and saving time by being capable of storing and retrieving vast amounts of information at the touch of button. Furthermore, personal can see as the using of computers increases powers of concentration. To sum it up, I must say that computer is a thing, which helps us to do our life much easier. So it means that we shouldn’t make it more important than our life or friends.
The drug problem
2009-12-22
Children start on “soft” drugs such as hashish or marijuana, moving on to speed and ecstasy, and finally to “hard” drugs such as heroin. Some people say that there is no drug problem in my hometown, as it is too small for this. But if you look around more carefully, you will see that this problem is everywhere. I think that drugs have spread all over the world. Almost every teenager has used some kind of drugs, but there are many youngsters who take dozes of drugs every day or even more often. As a rule, if there are buyers, there are sellers as well. All you need is money. There were some programs to fight drug abuse in my town. To be more specific, there were some competitions and lectures against drugs. All students took part in these lectures. The drug problem in Lithuania in general is much bigger than in my native town. In biggest cities as Vilnius, Kaunas or Klaipeda this problem is huge. There are many homeless young people who live with drugs. How we could help them? The first thing we have to do is to learn to listen. One ray of hope is the dedicated work performed by social workers, who should spend their time offering children and young people a new perspective. Social workers could visit the places where young people are likely to be hanging out every day to try to make contact and gain their confidence. People all over the world close their eyes to the fate of these youngsters only too often, or discriminate against them because they have no jobs, use drugs. And if we are honest, which one of us has ever seriously questioned the stories behind these young people’s existence? To sum it up, I think its better not even to try drugs, because you can become a drug addict. Drugs really change people. They lose interest in everything, they have no friends, they only care about the next doze. Do you want to live like that?
Teenagers criminals
2009-12-22
Last year teenagers committed about 535 crimes. During one-year period delinquency raised 16.6%. Biggest part of crimes was committed by teenagers aged from 13 to 19. Thefts from cars are 42.3% and burgalyries-31.5% off all committed crimes. Every 6th crime is burglary. Films of violence, detailed crime stories in the press have a big influence for crimes increasing. In 1998 investigated 47 teenagers’ burglaries in Siauliai, this year, after 4 months - 28. 22 of them were investigated. Comparing with last year Siauliai has 46.7% increases. Dogging adult’s steps teenagers begin extort wealth, cheat, make drugs, use guns, process money, resell burglaries things. Statistic shows that drunk or intoxicated teenagers made many crimes. From 615 criminals 249 are pupil from secondary school. 53% guilty juveniles don’t study or work. We can group teenager criminals into two groups. One group of them become criminals, because those teenagers are weakling persons, their friends make great influence on them on their way of thinking or by these friends help they do a crime for fun. Other group of teenager’s criminals does crimes for their bad social status. How a teenager can become a criminal? Teenager can become a criminal when: • This teenager’s friends make great influence on him on his way of thinking. • This teenager is a weakling person and he can’t resist the temptation to alcohol, drugs, so he does a crime, because at that moment he did not understand what he was doing, because he was drunk. • This teenager does not have what to do in his spare time, so he does a crime just for having fun. • This teenager’s social status is bad, so he does a crime for having money. What kind of teenager criminals are in Lithuania? A teenager criminal can be: • vandal (a person who likes to draw on the cars, walls, houses, who likes to brake something); • filches (some kind of stealer); • pilferer (some kind of stealer); • pugnacious person (a person who likes to fight against somebody); • burglar (a person who steals from the houses); • rapist (a person who likes to rape women); • racketeer (a person who orders another person to give all his money); As we all know the bigger part of teenager criminals are of male sex. And we also know that a teenager criminal is not so dangerous like a professional criminal, who has got lots of experience in that sphere. And that a teenager criminal’s way of life could be easily changed to another way of life, normal way of life, just you have to show that there is another way of living. Police account Why do youngsters become criminals? It’s the question, which bothers a lot of people. Here are some reasons why that happen: Youngsters don’t have interesting facilities and hobbies These are the main things why youngsters become criminals. Now we want to tell some ideas how to solve this problem. Should be some educational centers where young people could find a professional psychologist that would help a lot. Schools should try to help solve that problem and organize some lectures for students about crimes, drugs, how drugs can make people do very bad things. We were explaining how to solve that problem, but we forgot to tell what kinds of crimes are most popular. There are a lot of hooligans, but it isn’t the biggest problem in our country. They have a lot of problems with muggers, because they are getting money like that for drugs and then they start feeling bad and start robbing (old ladies), stealing or even burgling. That makes a lot of problems for police officers. And the other kind of crimes is shoplifting (that is the most popular kind of crimes) Very many shops loose a lot of money, because of that. And the main thing with shoplifters is that they get used to it and become addict. We think you want to ask why police isn’t doing anything about that. But they do. They try to organize some summer caps for youngsters try to take them to psychologist or to talk with them; some times they organize shows for pupil. So I think you can’t say that police is doing nothing.
In 1919 the Russian army was driven from most of Lithuania. A peace treaty was signed, and Russia recognized Lithuania’s sovereignty over Vilnius. But Poland, which had been seeking to recover territory lost during the 18th century, seized the city, after which Kaunas became the capital of Lithuania. From 1920 Lithuania was independent until, as a result of the 1939 pact between the Nazis and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), it was invaded by Soviet forces. During World War II, the USSR lost possession of Lithuania for a short time, but by 1944 it had re-established firm control. Thousands of armed partisan fighters, known as the “Forest Brothers”, continued their fight for national sovereignty, but during Stalin’s regime Lithuania suffered repression and mass deportations. Relations were less confrontational after the 1950s, but Lithuanians never gave up their goal of independence. In 1990 the country was one of the first republics to declare independence from the USSR, which was by then too unstable to force Lithuania back into the Union. Many countries quickly recognized Lithuania’s sovereignty, as did Russia and other former Soviet republics after the break-up of the USSR in 1991. The Lithuanian government, led by members of a political coalition called Saj?dis, embarked on a radical programme to reform the economy and other social structures, but progress was slow and painful. In national elections held in 1992, voters rejected the Saj?dis leadership in favour of former Communists, who had formed a new political party advocating slower reform and closer ties with neighbouring countries, especially Russia. The new government pledged to remain committed to democracy, but slowed privatization and other reform measures to soften the impact of political and social change. In August 1993 all remaining Russian troops withdrew from Lithuania, leaving the people free to concentrate on building a stable and prosperous country. Economy There was rapid industrialization after World War II, and by 1991 industry accounted for 43 per cent of Lithuania’s gross domestic product (GDP), and agriculture for about 28 per cent. The country makes precision machinery and spare parts, processed foods, and light industrial products. The main exports are machinery and parts, meat and dairy products, and consumer goods. Lithuania has very few natural resources, so the country depends heavily on imported raw materials. Imports include oil and gas, chemicals, metals, and equipment. Output declined after independence, because traditional supply arrangements were interrupted, but Lithuania is seeking ties with Western governments and neighbouring countries to increase revenue, foreign investment, and productivity. After independence, the Sajūdis government introduced a radical reform programme involving privatization and price liberalization. As in all former Communist countries that are moving towards a market economy, the initial results were rising inflation and falling living standards. By 1994, however, there were signs of recovery. The national currency is the litas.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (22,56 kB)
Social motives
2009-12-22
Hormonal control At puberty – roughly ages 11 to 14 – hormone changes produce the bodily changes that serve to distinguish males from females. The general idea is that endocrine glands manufacture hormones (chemical messengers), which travel through the bloodstream to target organs. The basic scheme is simple: by way of hormones, the hypothalamus directs the pituitary, which in turn directs the gonads – the ovaries and the testes. The hormones produced by the gonads – estrogen, progesterone, and androgen – are called sex hormones. These hormones are responsible for the body changes at puberty. In girls, estrogen causes the development of breasts, the changes in the distribution of body fat that results in a more feminine form, and the maturation of the female genitals. In boys, testosterone (a kind of androgen) is responsible for the sudden growth of facial, underarm, and pubic hair; it also causes a deepening of the voice, the development of muscles that lead to a more masculine form, and the growth of the external genitals. In other species, sexual arousal is closely tied to variations in hormonal levels; in humans, however, hormones play less of a role. Neural Control In humans, some of the neural mechanisms involved are at the level of spinal cord. But the organ most responsible for the regulation of sexual arousal and behavior is the brain. Early Experiences Experience has little influence on the mating behavior of lower mammals – inexperienced rats will copulate as efficiently as experienced ones – but it is a major determinant of the sexual behavior of higher mammals. Monkeys raised in partial isolation (in separate wire cages, where they can see other monkeys but cannot have contact with them) are usually unable to copulate at maturity. These monkeys have social or affectional problems: even in nonsexual situations, they are unable to relate to other monkeys. Apparently, normal heterosexual behavior in primates depends also on an affectional bond between two members of the opposite sex. Clinical observations of human infants suggest certain parallels. They develop their first feelings of trust and affection through a loving relationship with the mother. This basic trust is a prerequisite for satisfactory interactions with peers. And affectionate relationship with other youngsters of both sexes lay the groundwork for the intimacy required for the intimacy for sexual relationships among adults. Cultural Influences Unlike that of other primates, human sexual behavior is strongly determined by culture. Every society places some restrictions on sexual behavior. Incest (sexual relations within the family), for example, is prohibited by almost all cultures. Sexual activity among children, homosexuality, masturbation, premarital sex – are permitted in varying degrees by different societies. Although western society is becoming increasingly permissive about premarital sex, men and women still differ in their attitudes toward sex (the majority of women need emotional involvement). Homosexuality Someone is considered homosexual if they are sexually attracted primarily to members of the same sex. Sexual interactions with members of the same sex are not uncommon during childhood, but only a small percentage of people become exclusively homosexual as adults. Extensive interviews with homosexuals suggest that they do not differ from heterosexuals with regard to their identifications with parents of the opposite sex, or with regard to the nature of their first sexual encounter. For exclusive homosexuals, there may be a biological predisposition (hypothesis that homosexuals and heterosexuals may differ with respect to the hormones they were exposed to while still in the womb). EARLY SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT One needs to develop an appropriate gender identity - males need to think of themselves as males, and females as females. This development is quite complex and begins in the womb. Prenatal hormones For the first couple of months after conception, both sexes are identical in appearance. Between 2 and 3 months, a primitive gonad develops into testes (if XY) or into ovaries (if XX). They start producing sex hormones, which then control the development of internal reproduction structures and the external genitals. The critical hormone in genital development is androgen. If enough androgen is produced, the newborn will have male genitals; if there is insufficient androgen, the newborn will have female genitals, even if it is genetically male. After the genitals, androgen begins to masculinize the brain. Hormones versus Environment In cases in which hormonal imbalances result in hermaphrodites (individuals born with both male and female tissue), the assigned label and the sex role in which the individual is raised seem to have greater influence on gender identity than do the individual’s genes and hormones.
Environmental conditions shape behavior through learning; a person’s behavior, in turn, shapes the environment. Persons and situations influence each other reciprocally (abipusishkai). To predict behavior, we need to know how the characteristics of the individual interact with the characteristics of the situation. The S.C. approach is the contemporary descendent of behaviorism and its outgrowth, stimulus-response psychology, which were dominant in the first half of this century. Like the psychoanalytic approach, the S.C. approach to personality is very deterministic. In contrast to the psychoanalytic approach, however, it pays very little attention to biological determinants. Like its parent, behaviorism, the social learning approach has been strongly influenced by the ideas of Darwin. The processes of learning shape the individual’s behavioral repertoire to be adaptive to his or her environment. Through its emphasis on specifying the environmental variables that evoke specific behaviors, S.C. theory has made a major contribution to both clinical psychology and personality theory. It has led us to see human actions as reactions to specific environments, and it has helped us to focus on the way in which environments control our behavior and how they can be changed to modify behavior. The careful application of learning principles has proved successful in changing maladaptive behavior. S.C. theorists have also challenged the notion that individuals are cross-situanionally consistent, forcing other personality theorists to reexamine the fundamental assumptions of their approaches. S.C. theorists have been criticized for overemphasizing the importance of situational influences on behavior and thus losing the person in personality psychology. Many personality theorists are unwilling to concede that personality has as little cross-situational consistency as social learning implies.
Mark Twain
2009-12-22
By setting The Prince and the Pauper in Tudor England, Twain found a way to indulge the public’s then fashionable taste for the British monarchy, while at the same time expressing his aversion for that selfsame monarchy, which he called “surely the grotesque’s of all swindles ever invented by man” He had also discovered a means of exposing a host of modern injustices, as well. Writing this book Twain wanted to show social inequality in England. He made the most miserable and the noblest boys as principal personages, thus he tells of very different fate of two boys who had born the same day and the same town. M. Twain wanted to tell that prince and pauper can differ only by clothes, that all people born equal rights: rich and poor.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (3,5 kB)
Life and death
2009-12-22
Though less is known about death. All we know is that the body stops functioning. And no one knows what comes after that, what happens with person’s mind and spirit. Or maybe nothing happens, human existence just ends at the moment of death. So far it is everyone’s business to believe in life after death or not. But there is one question that can be discussed about death: is it meaningful or not? One can say that the one who believes in life after death will give the meaning to it and on the contrary – the one who does not – will not give the meaning to it. But there are people who do not believe in life after death. They even do not know if they believe in something at all and death is something mysterious, something important in human’s life even for them. Why death is so important in human’s life? Is it important? Before answering these questions I checked in the Internet hoping to find something about death. I looked for information in Academic Search Elite and Academic Search Premier databases and found over 20.000 pages related to this theme. Of course, not all of them were only about death itself, some of them where about death of some famous person, but the numbers speak. People talk about it, and if they talk about it – they care about it, it is important for them. However, why others think that it is just “an awful, stinking, absurd horror, and there is no way of giving it meaning”? There may be a lot of reasons and I would like to mention some of them. Let us look at the world history and especially the World War I, World War II and other tragedies. Dead people were buried all together without coffins, without priests (if a man was religious), without any attention. Of course, there were such circumstances – economic situation was bad, no time for normal funeral (have to fight), lots of unknown dead people. The death lost it’s mysteriousness, sacral meaning. Therefore some people think of death if it was only the end of bodies functioning. Though no man can judge them because no-one knows if there is something after death. Everyone knows for sure that the body begins to fall to pieces, begins to putrefy, to stink after death. This is also a reason to think as Rollo May does. But we should think from the other point of view. Every man’s death makes his relatives, friends, acquaintances feel bad, sad, or at least uncomfortable. Some of them say that they miss the person, feel lonely without him. Maybe it can be called egoism, but still person’s death does not pass through without consequences. It makes us stop for a second and think about the eternal questions of life and death. Yet another reason for such thinking could be the fear of death. When people are afraid of something they usually ignore or deny it. Some of them do not even think about it. In this situation a person who thinks so do not want to have any relationships with death and therefore deny it, give no meaning to it. And as the folk wisdom speaks – the roots of fear hide in ignorance. The meaning of death also shows burying traditions. Our ancients showed respect to a dead man by putting expensive clothes, things, animals and even humans to graves. They believed in life after death and emphasized it with great ceremonies. When Catholicism came to our culture burying traditions have changed but nevertheless it remained very important in humans’ life cycle. It proves the importance of priest’s participation in funeral. I have already mentioned World Wars. As it is the tragedy of the whole mankind, we can not judge about significance of death from this point of view. Nowadays things change very fast and it is hard to decide how people think about things. By the way Andrew Greeley said: “since the fall of socialism in Eastern Europe there has been a significant increase in religious faith in Hungary, Slovenia, East Germany, and the Soviet Union, particularly in matters of religious faith like belief in God, life after death, heaven, hell, and religious miracles.” (Society, Mar/Apr2001, Vol. 38 Issue 3, p32, 6p). Proving this I should say I was surprised one day by the Mass in the Catholic Church – there were lots of young people, they were singing, it looked as if they liked it very much to be in church, to participate in Mass. It was no doubt for me that they really believe in God who says that death is an important period in human’s existence. But there is another question about believing in God and meaningful death. It happens very often that a man who lost his friend, beloved person in early childhood when his faith in something was just beginning to develop does not believe in God, hates death because of some unfairness, offense. He can not go to a funeral, he laughs at those who suffer because of somebody’s death. He says he does not understand people who give some meaning to death. But it is just a defensive reaction. He denies death because he does not want to remember early childhood’s horrible experience. Lately I have been to a couple of funerals. People who died were not very close to me. Still their death touched me. As I looked at dead people’s relatives, friends I realized that this event is very hard to experience. It seemed that they lost the ground under their feet, they looked so lost as if they did not know how they were going to live any longer. But still in such a sad situation they believed that for a man who died will be easier to live “there”. They wanted to say goodbye to their friend, relative and I even heard one woman saying that she hopes to see him in the better world. That was the most convincing argument that she believes in the meaning of death. I would like to say that nobody should give up in believing in life after death. People should believe in death as in a one step in the better human’s life. In nowadays when social, economic conditions are very unfavorable old people who have to little time to change something must have hope in case they could live their last days cheerfully, hopefully. But it is one problem with it – people are too afraid in death. Let us cope with this problem, let us give a hopeful meaning to death and let us live more joyful!
India
2009-12-22
India One of the most striking features about India, which any foreign traveler must appreciate, is the size and diversity of this country. India is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of size, with a total landmass of 3,287,590 sq km. Located in South Asia, it has land boundary of 14,107 km with its neighbours [Pakistan, China, Bangladesh, Burma, Nepal and Bhutan] and a coastline of 7,000 km, which stretches across the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean. India is a country of both diversity and continuity. It is a creative blend of cultures, religions, races and languages. The nation's identity and social structure remain protected by a rich cultural heritage that dates back at least 5,000 years, making India one of the oldest civilisations in the world. One of the fundamental components of Indian culture, vital for your business organisation to succeed, is an understanding of the traditions and ways of communicating with others that form the basis of India's society. It is advisable to schedule your appointment at least a couple of months in advance. If you are making your appointments before coming to India, do emphasize that you will be in India for a short period of time, if this is the case. It is also useful to reconfirm your meeting a few days before the agreed upon date. Do be prepared for last minute changes in the time and place of your meeting. It is useful to leave your contact details with the secretary of the person, so that, in case there are changes, you can be informed. Formal or informal communication: • In general, people are addressed by their name [without the prefix] only by close acquaintances, family members, or by someone who is older or superior in authority. • Do use titles wherever possible, such as “Professor” or “Doctor”. If your Indian counterpart does not have a title, use “Mr”, “Mrs”, or “Miss”. • Do remain polite and honest at all times in order to prove that your objectives are sincere. • Don't be aggressive in your business negotiations – it can show disrespect. Behavior: • The head is considered the seat of the soul. Never touch someone else’s head, not even to pat the hair of a child. • Beckoning someone with the palm up and wagging one finger can be construed as in insult. Standing with your hands on your hips will be interpreted as an angry, aggressive posture. • Whistling is impolite and winking may be interpreted as either an insult or a sexual proposition. • Greet by pressing your palms together and bow slightly. Say “Namaste” (nah-mah-stay). • Among the younger urban Indians, a 'Hello' or 'Hi' with a wave of the hand is also an acceptable form of greeting when making informal contact. • Talking to a woman who is walking alone is not advisable, since it is likely to be seen as a proposition or other inappropriate gesture. • Allow women to proceed first. • Ignore beggars. • Respect age and seniority. • The comfortable distance to be maintained during an interaction is much closer in India than in most Western countries. In general, a distance of about 2 or 2 ½ feet is seen as comfortable. However, since India has very high population density, in public spaces [e.g., public transport, a queue, etc.], don't be surprised if you find people almost rubbing against you.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (10,01 kB)
Having a pet
2009-12-22
Touching some other bases, I must say that there are many reasons of having a pet. The most important is loneliness. However I can’t deny that some people keep pets for fun. There are strong arguments both for and against keeping a pet. I would like begin with advantages of owning a pet. The first reason of having a pet is that their benefits for children are undeniable. Keeping a pet is an important part of every child’s childhood and plays a big role in both their physical and mental development. It teaches children how to play, look after them, while at the same time aiding tolerance and understanding of each other. From a social standpoint, pets play a large role in many lonely people’s lives. Nowadays more than ever lonely people are fond of keeping pets, because it helps to raise their mood, when they are in low spirits, and not to feel so extremely lonely. The final advantage of having a pet is that it makes fun for people who are crazy about attending various animals’ exhibitions and showing the best points of their pets to others. However, there are many disadvantages of keeping a pet as well. Perhaps the most obvious one is that pets cause a lot of damage. In fact, a lot of people face with this problem. To avoid that they always have to look after their pet and try not to keep them in rooms which are full of valuable things. Secondly, some people can’t keep pets because of their health. Usually they are allergies and can not live with a pet in the same place. Furthermore, some pets, especially dogs, dislike little children and they are likely to bite them. So it is advisable to think twice before buying a pet and consider both advantages and disadvantages. Talking about pets, I am able to say that I have a pet too. I have big, fat cat. He is called Meilas. He is Persian race. All my family’s life changed when we got this cat. This cat brought to our lives more fun. I feel very happy when Meilas meets me coming back from school. He is my best friend. To sum it up, I must say that if you love your pet, he makes you life as fun as you can imagine.
Happiness
2009-12-22
Happiness is an emotional or affective state that is characterized by feelings of enjoyment and satisfaction. States associated with happiness include well-being, delight, health, safety, contentment and love. Contrasting states include suffering, depression, grief, anxiety, and pain. Happiness is often associated with the presence of favorable circumstances such as a supportive family life and economic stability. However,There are several factors of being contented. A very important trait of happy people is their social involvement with others. Close relationships with supportive friends and family and an interest in caring and loving relationships are a priority in the pursuit of happiness. Moreover, happy people are good at setting long-term goals at work. They find work to be a positive experience because they put themselves into work situations where they feel challenged and engaged. The most important trait common to happy people is positive self-esteem. Such people like themselves and believe in themselves to be smarter, healthier and more sociable than the average person. They are also more optimistic, extroverted, and tend to have more realistic perspectives. They feel like they are in control of their lives. Also, research proves that people who are active in religious organizations are more contmented because they cope better with various life experiences and are less vulnerable. In conclusion, hapiness is anyone and anything that's loved by you. To look at it in a simple way, contentment is when reality is better than your dreams.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1,33 kB)
English grammar
2009-12-22
Emotions cause not only general reactions, but specific ones as well. We may laugh when happy, withdraw when frightened, get aggressive when angry, and so forth. Among these typical emotional reactions, psychologists have singled out one in particular for extensive study: aggression. The components of an emotion include autonomic arousal (sužadinimas), cognitive appraisal (įvertinimas), and emotional expression. Intense emotions usually involve physiological arousal caused by activation of the autonomic nervous system. People who have spinal cord injuries, report experiencing less intense emotions. Most people report getting angry at least several times a week often at loved ones. Though they commonly feel like aggressing physically when angered most control these impulses. Frustration and pain (mental and physical) arouse anger and can stimulate aggression. Incentives may also trigger aggression. Aggression is a typical reaction to anger (though it can occur for other reasons as well). According to early psychoanalytic theory, aggression is a frustration-produced drive; according to social-learning theory, aggression is a learned response. Biology gives animals the capacity to hurt one another. The threshold levels of numerous aggressive brain systems are thought to be influenced by heredity other neutral circuits, blood chemistry, neurotransmitters, and experience. Cultures that sanction aggression have high rates of it. Families teach aggression directly and indirectly. When treated harshly, children pick up the same habits. Other contributers to aggression include school failures and frustrations, anonymity, poverty, and the availability of weapons. Several techniques for the control of human aggression exist. These include punishment, catharsis, exposure to nonaggressive models, and training in basic social skills. In addition, aggression can often be reduced though the induction of responses or emotional states incompatible with such behavior.
Emotions cause not only general reactions, but specific ones as well. We may laugh when happy, withdraw when frightened, get aggressive when angry, and so forth. Among these typical emotional reactions, psychologists have singled out one in particular for extensive study: aggression. The components of an emotion include autonomic arousal (sužadinimas), cognitive appraisal (įvertinimas), and emotional expression. Intense emotions usually involve physiological arousal caused by activation of the autonomic nervous system. People who have spinal cord injuries, report experiencing less intense emotions. Most people report getting angry at least several times a week often at loved ones. Though they commonly feel like aggressing physically when angered most control these impulses. Frustration and pain (mental and physical) arouse anger and can stimulate aggression. Incentives may also trigger aggression. Aggression is a typical reaction to anger (though it can occur for other reasons as well). According to early psychoanalytic theory, aggression is a frustration-produced drive; according to social-learning theory, aggression is a learned response. Biology gives animals the capacity to hurt one another. The threshold levels of numerous aggressive brain systems are thought to be influenced by heredity other neutral circuits, blood chemistry, neurotransmitters, and experience. Cultures that sanction aggression have high rates of it. Families teach aggression directly and indirectly. When treated harshly, children pick up the same habits. Other contributers to aggression include school failures and frustrations, anonymity, poverty, and the availability of weapons. Several techniques for the control of human aggression exist. These include punishment, catharsis, exposure to nonaggressive models, and training in basic social skills. In addition, aggression can often be reduced though the induction of responses or emotional states incompatible with such behavior.
Direct observation deals with naturally occurring behavior. It is commonly used by biopsychologists to observe animal behavior in natural conditions. Humans can also be observed by direct observation, although that kind of observation requires specific techniques. There are many different techniques that describe the timing of observation, its frequency, longitude, the way data should be recorded in video and audio devices, or written in protocols. Direct observation is usually divided into laboratory observations and field observations. For the first one, psychologists create an artificial situation and watch someone solving it. This method allows an objective data gathering where almost all variables can be controlled, eliminated or changed. While field observations or naturalistic research takes place in the natural environment. Usually the observer has to camouflage himself in order not to be spotted and not to intercept with the experiment. There is a big fight over these two methods. Naturalistic observation provides data that is much closer to the reality, although it is impossible to control the factors that may influence the observed behavior. Indirect observation can be split into questionnaires, interviews and psychological testing. Questionnaires allow social scientists to collect information quickly and cheaply. It also gives an opportunity to examine a big group of individuals at the same time. Usually questionnaires ask for readily available information and do not require a lot of soul-searching. Psychological testing is another form of an indirect observation. It is usually used to observe: mental health, intelligence, moods, personality traits, beliefs, feelings, needs, opinions, abilities, knowledge and the like. Tests vary in formats from questionnaire type to the exam looking like. Some tests can be made to exam large groups while others certain individuals. Interviews and questionnaires are also quite similar. Interviews are closer to direct observation method then testing or than questionnaires, because interviews involve an investigator, who collects data in face-to-face manner. Interviews can be structured or open-ended. Structured interviews have definite questions that everyone is expected to answer and precise answer options may be available. While open-ended interviews allow respondents to speak whatever they like under mere question construction designed by the examiner. Although interview is an expensive method for data gathering, since it involves a tête-à-tête work of a qualified psychologist.
Computer – it`s a machine for carrying out calculations and performing specified transformations on information, such as storing, sorting, correlating, retrieving and processing data. The main disadvantage of computers is that staring at a screen for long periods of time can be damaging to the eyes, and sitting on a chair for hours at a time is certainly not healthy. Secondly computers distract from social interactions such as conversation. Also, people can be inclined to become anti-social and stay at home and use their computer. Finally, the most persuasive argument against the use of computers is that the more jobs are done by computers the less are done by people. It isn`t very good for increasing people population. However, the advantages of computers are numerous, such as undeniable educational benefits, especially to children. School subjects become more interesting when presented on a computer screen. Moreover, computers can be fun with a seemingly endless variety of games which can be played on them. In addition, computers are valuable to any business, making life easier and saving time by being capable of storing and retrieving vast amounts of information at he touch of the button. I think computer has a lot of disadvantages and advantages. Yet, despite the health problems, risk to jobs and personal interaction, it seems that as long as the use of computers is regulated the benefits computers provide to education and businesses are invaluable. Computers make our life easier.
Children rights
2009-12-22
Even in the same nation children rights were equally respected, and violated. For example in ancient Egypt one of the pharaohs ordered to kill all male, new-born Jewish children, because he thought, that the Jewish (Hebrew) people became more powerful than they, Egyptians were. According to the Bible, he said unto his people: Behold, the people of Israel Are more and mightier than we. And he said, when ye do the office Of a midwife to the Hebrew women, And see then upon the stools; If it be a son, then ye shall kill him: But if it be a daughter then she shall live. Of course, it was the roughest breaking of children rights. But in the same country, almost at the same time, small - aged prince Tuthanchathon sat on the throne. His aunt wanted to occupy the throne herself , that means to break his , as pharaoh's child's and throne heir's, rights, but this time child's rights defence worked really strongly , because Tuthanchathon was an Egyptian , not Jewish child , and , of course , pharaoh's son. The same kind of violation of children rights was in Sparta - they killed children too, but this time - for another reason. From five years age Spartans took their male children to the military trainings. And if a child was too weak for such trainings, they killed him. It’s a strict breaking of child's rights, because children can't chose, what physical or mental shape will they born. But the times were changing, so the attitude towards children rights was changing too. Masive and cruel children’s killing was stopped. Of course, that doesn't mean, that the violation of child's rights was stopped too. For example in Middle-ages in Europe parents could hand over their just - born children to abbeys , could chose them any profession they want or even to set up a marriage without asking them. Also children often had to work very hardly, and at work they had to keep up equally with adults, otherwise they were punished. But after some hundreds years passed , that kind of kind of child's neglect had vanished too , and step by step children were admitted to the circle of all people , who have full rights. Despite of such relief, children rights and their defence remains a unsolved problem. Now-a-days our civilization has reached very high levels, but it can't deal with it .We still have lots of situations, where child's rights are neglected. One of them has occurred and continues to worry world's society in China. It's linked with the number of people, who live in China, because that number increases, and already has reached more than 1.2 billion! So, in that country all families, that have underage children, must pay additional taxes. That badly worsens social situation of such families, so parents can't support their children as good as they require .Other countries are indignant at such situation. In Saudi Arabia the government even pays more then $ 20.000 to the mothers, who born children, because they respect child's rights and want the children of their country to live happily. The Constitutions of many countries contain some points about child's rights. Lithuanian Constitution has such points too .For example they say , that :" Government takes care about families , what raise up their children at home , while they are underage ". That shows that Lithuania respects child's rights too. So, we've travelled through the history from ancient times to our days. You should've mentioned that I've missed one thing, which from time to time occurred and died out during the human civilizations history. It's war. War is the exception from all rules, because it has no rules. During a war there's just one right - the right of the strongest - he can do whatever he wants, not respecting other rights, even child's rights. The best example is the Balkan war, where from illnesses, hunger and aggression die children. The United Nations Organization is really concerned about that. They proved that by establishing a fund, which is called “Help Children of Sarajevo” As you see, when wars occur, all the success that was reached during thousands of years in child’s rights protection vanishes. But when wars die out, those rights regain their former respect, that’s why wars are just rude exceptions, which can't stop the whole process. We think that history goes the right way, because there are more and more laws, confirming child's rights in lots of countries. And we are happy about the development of those laws, because living in good circumstances lets us to become freer, more intelligent and educated generation.
Alcoholism
2009-12-22
More males than females are affected by alcoholism, but drinking among the young and among women is increasing. Consumption of alcohol is apparently on the rise in the United States, as is the total alcohol consumption and prevalence of alcohol-related problems in the former communist countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. This increase is paralleled in other countries, including developing nations. After 1980, however, consumption remained relatively stable in many western European nations. Alcoholism, as opposed to merely excessive or irresponsible drinking, has been thought of as a symptom of psychological or social stress or as a learned, maladaptive coping behaviour. More recently, and probably more accurately, it has come to be viewed as a complex disease in its own right. Alcoholism usually develops over a period of years. Alcohol comes to be used more as a mood-changing drug than as a foodstuff or beverage served as a part of social custom or religious ritual. Initially, the alcoholic may demonstrate a high tolerance to alcohol, consuming more and showing fewer adverse effects than others. Subsequently, however, the person begins to drink against his or her own best interests, as alcohol comes to assume more importance than personal relationships, work, reputation, or even physical health. The person commonly loses control over drinking and is increasingly unable to predict how much alcohol will be consumed on a given occasion or, if the person is currently abstaining, when the drinking will resume again. Physical addiction to the drug may occur, sometimes eventually leading to drinking around the clock to avoid withdrawal symptoms. Effects Alcohol has direct toxic as well as sedative effects on the body, and failure to take care of nutritional and other physical needs during prolonged periods of excessive drinking may further complicate matters. Advanced cases often require hospitalization. The effects on major organ systems are cumulative and include a wide range of digestive-system disorders such as ulcers, inflammation of the pancreas, and cirrhosis of the liver. The central and peripheral nervous systems can be permanently damaged. Blackouts, hallucinations, and extreme tremors may occur. The latter symptoms are involved in the most serious alcohol withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens, which can prove fatal despite prompt treatment. This is in contrast to withdrawal from narcotic drugs such as heroin, which, although distressing, rarely results in death. Recent evidence has shown that heavy—and even moderate—drinking during pregnancy can cause serious damage to the unborn child: physical or mental retardation, or both; a rare but severe expression of this damage is known as foetal alcohol syndrome. HISTORY OF ALCOHOL Thousands of years ago people began to make alcohol for practical reasons. Wine making began with the early Egyptians who found that grape juise spoiled quickly,but that fermented juise or wine would keep without spoiling.They also had problems with impure water,and the Egyptians noticed that people did not sick ower wine,but they often became ill when they drank inpure water.In later years,wine became inportant to the Roman Catholic Church throughuot Europe because wine was used to celebrate the sacrament of the Mass.By the 1300`s,beer industry had emerged in Central Europe.At this time,wine was also continuing to grow in popularity;many brands named for the places in which they originated.At first alcohol was desined for the practical reasons,its use changed.People began to experiment with different types of alcohol.Alcohol became an integral part of European culture.We need to understand the harmful effects of alcohol,because it can be fatal.
Agoraphobia
2009-12-22
These people avoid being on busy streets or in crowded stores, theatres and churches. Normal activities become restricted as the person avoids these situations. Many agoraphobia victims are afraid of leaving the house. Perhaps for this reason agoraphobia is the most common phobia seen in the clinic, about 60% of all examined phobias. Agoraphobia occurs about two times more commonly among women than men. It can be connected with the fact, that Women have been and are still being stereotyped, agoraphobia has been explained in terms of traditional sex roles. Clinical descriptions of agoraphobics use such words as passive, shy, dependent, descriptions traditionally applied to women. It may be as Fodor suggests, that being agoraphobic, is in part a logical, although exaggerated, extension of the stereotyped female role. Until recently and still in many societies it has been more acceptable for a woman than for a man to be housebound. As stereotypes of womes as helpless, fragile, home-oriented, passive, fearful and dependent will change, the should be equal number of male-female agoraphobics. The disorder tends to be more common among families where other members also suffer from an anxiety disorder and/or possibly abuse alcohol. Most agoraphobia’s develop symptoms between the ages of 18 and 35. The onset may be sudden or gradual. Many agoraphobia victims develop the disorder after first suffering a series of panic attacks in public places. The attacks seem to occur randomly and without warning, making it impossible for a person to predict what situation will trigger such a reaction. Attack is accompanied with tension, anxiety, dizziness, depression, sweating, more frequent heartbeating, minor checking compulsions – checking is the door is locked, no intruder is under the bed, the iron is offf- rumination and fear of going mad. One study found that 93% of agoraphobics also reported fears of heights and enclosed spaces such as subways and elevators. But many agoraphobics have “good days”, when they can move about. Being with a trusted companion can also help them leave the house. Treatment Fortunately, phobias are very treatable. In fact, most people who seek treatment completely overcome their fears for life. Psychoanalytic approaches. Treatment tries to uncover the repressed conflict, that are thought to be covered in the extreme fear and avoidance. Phobia is thought to protect the person from repressed conflicts that are too painful to face it. There are two major techniques, that are used to help lift the repression. First is – free association. The analyst listen carefully to what tha patient mentions in connections with any references to the phobia. And second – analyst tries to discover origins of the phobia by analyzing the content of dreams. But more effective relief can be gained through either behavior therapy or medication. In behavior therapy, one meets with a trained therapist and learns to control the physical reactions of fear. The person first imagines the feared object or situation, works up to looking at pictures that show the object or situation, and finally actually experiences the situation or comes in contact with the feared object. the person becomes accustomed to it and can lose the terror, horror, panic, and dread he or she once felt. It is called systematic desensitization. Medications are used to control the panic experienced during a phobic situation as well as the anxiety aroused by anticipation of that situation and are the treatment of first choice for social phobia and agoraphobia. Any phobia that interferes with daily living and creates extreme disability should be treated. With proper treatment, the vast majority of phobia patients can completely overcome their fears and be symptom free for years, if not for life.
Nuo senų senovės pažanga ir vystymasis buvo viso pasaulio varikliai, noras siekti tobūlybės leido žmogui tapti tuo, kuo jis yra dabar. Akivaizdu, kad mūsų dienų pažangos sparta skiriasi nuo ankstesnės, tempai yra tokie, kad praėjus dešimtmečiui galima bus ir nebeatpažinti aplinkos kurioje gyvename. XXI amžiuje negalime nepastebeti milžiniško technologijų vystymosi, jis tiesiogiai arba ne visai tiesiogiai daro įtaka kiekvieno žmogaus gyvenimui. Taipogi kiekvena socialinė terpė negali likti nuošalėje ir išsaugoti pirminės būsenos.
Politologija  Referatai   (8 psl., 16,71 kB)
Since the times of Roman Empire, London was one of the greatest commercial and social cities. What makes London famous nowadays is its historical heritage, kept many centuries, and modern buildings, built for the pleasure of the visitor.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 4,42 kB)
Pirmiausia reikia išsiaiškinti, kas yra socialinis pedagogas, kokios jo funkcijos? Kas būdinga asmenybei? G. Kvieskienė (Kvieskienė, 2003) yra pasakiusi labai prasmingą teiginį, jog socialiniai pedagogai – vaiko gerovės sergėtojai ir vaiko advokatai – siekia apsaugoti tuos, už kuriuos atsako, tai yra mažiausius ir silpniausius piliečius. Šio tikslo jie siekia pasitelkdami humanizmo mąstytojų idėjas, iškiliausių praktikų pedagogų, altruistų, dvasinės sferos darbuotojų atsidavimą begalinei būčiai, aukojimąsi visoms būties apraiškoms. Socialinis pedagogas spręsdamas kitų problemas pirmiausia pasitelkia savo jėgomis, sugebėjimu greitai orientuotis situacijoje, savo erudicija.
Komunikacijos  Diplominiai darbai   (68 psl., 123,21 kB)
15 anglų kalbos tekstų kalbėjimui.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (5 psl., 15,04 kB)
Psichodermatologija
2009-09-10
Psichodermatologija – psichosomatinės medicinos sritis, tirianti odos ir psichikos sąveika. Jos objektas – odos ligomis sergančiųjų psichologinės problemos (intrapsichinės ir tarpasmeninės) bei psichosocialiniai faktoriai, galintys būti tiek ligos priežastimi, tiek pasekme. Odos ligos visada turi neigiamos įtakos pacientų gyvenimo kokybei, psichosocialinei adaptacijai. Visuomet yra ryšys tarp odos ligos ir psichologinio distreso. Kuo geriau suprasime odos ligų ir psichologinių sutrikimų tarpusavio sąveiką, tuo efektyvesnis bus gydymas, gerės ligonių gyvenimo kokybė.
Medicina  Konspektai   (5 psl., 11,64 kB)
Vocabulary. Definitions of key vocabulary. The means of marketing. Advertising. Advantages and disadvantages of major advertising media. Formulating of the advertising message. The role of the advertising in the promotional mix. Advertising as persuasion. Marketing influences and often actually controls almost every part of company's activities. Everyone who works for the company must “think marketing”. To think marketing we must understand in the right way what is the marketing concept.
Rinkodara  Konspektai   (32 psl., 212,25 kB)
Vadybos pagrindai
2009-09-04
Vadybos samprata ir esmė. Organizacija. Valdymo procesas. Vadybos teorija ir raida. Organizacija ir aplinka. Globalizacija ir valdymas. Organizacijų kūrimas. Plananavimas. Organizavimas. Vadovavimas. Kontrolė. Operacijų valdymas. Valdymo informacinės sistemos. Gamybos valdymas. Pagalbinės gamybos ir gamybos aptarnavimo organizavimas ir valdymas. Finansinių išteklių valdymas. Marketingas. Žmonių išteklių valdymas.
Vadyba  Konspektai   (209 psl., 1,38 MB)
The world's population will soon reach a level where there will not be enough resources to sustain life as we know it. Growth must be checked to avoid this catastrophe. Many environmental, social, and economic problems either stem from or are increased in magnitude by the overpopulation problem. With an exponentially increasing population, the problems created by overpopulation grow correspondingly.
Kita  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 3,66 kB)
Charles Dickens
2009-09-01
English novelist, generally considered the greatest of the Victorian period. Dickens's works are charactericized by attacks on social evils, unjustice, and hypocrisy. He had also experienced in his youth oppression, when he was forced to end school in early teens and work in a factory. Dickens's lively good, bad and comic characters, such as the cruel miser Scrooge, the aspiring novelist David Copperfield, or the trusting and innocent Mr. Pickwick, have fascinated generations of readers.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (2 psl., 5,19 kB)
Alcohol can play a major part in many people's social lives. That's why it's easy to forget that it's actually a very powerful drug. Technically speaking, it's a depressant which means it slows down your body's responses in all kinds of ways. Just enough can make you feel great, too much and it's all over.
Biologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 4,43 kB)
Margaret Thatcher
2009-08-20
She is first woman to hold the office of prime minister of Great Britain (1979-1990). She was born Margaret Hilda Roberts in Grantham and educated at the University of Oxford, where she earned degrees in chemistry; from 1947 to 1951 she worked as a research chemist. She married Denis Thatcher in 1951. In 1953, having studied for the bar, she became a tax lawyer. Joining the Conservative party, Thatcher was elected to the House of Commons in 1959. As minister of education and science from 1970 to 1974 under Edward Heath, she provoked a storm of protest by abolishing free milk in the schools. After the Conservative defeat in 1974, she challenged Heath for the leadership of the party and won the post in 1975.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (2 psl., 23,43 kB)
Le francais en afrique noire. Colonisation française de l’Afrique noire: de1815 à 1914; après 1914. Implantation de la langue française. Afrique subsaharienne francophone d’aujourd’hui: les pays où la langue maternelle est le français; ceux où la langue officielle est le français; ceux où la langue d’usage est le français. L’enseignement dans l’Afrique noire: pendant la colonisation; après la décolonisation. La pratique du français en Afrique subsaharienne. Deuxième partie. Les particularites de la langue francaise en afrique noire. Syntaxe. Morphologie. Phonétique et phonologie. Vocabulaire: liste des “francophonismes” africains; les particularités du vocabulaire franco-africain et de sa création.
Kitos kalbos  Referatai   (26 psl., 33 kB)
Europos Sąjungos institucijos ir sprendimų priėmimas. ES struktūra. Europos Sąjungos institucijų lentelė. Europos sąjungos institucijos. Europos viršūnių taryba. Taryba. Komisija. Europos Parlamentas. Teisingumo teismas. Audito rūmai. Ombudsmenas. Ekonomikos ir socialinių reikalų komitetas. Regionų komitetas. Europos investicijų bankas. Europos centrinis bankas. Pirmos instancijos teismas. Bendrųjų reikalų taryba.
Politologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (29 psl., 57,6 kB)
30 anglų topicų
2009-07-21
30 anglų topicų temomis: * Personal Identification * Familyy Life * Politics & Elections * Travelling & Sightseeing of Lithuania * Ecology & Recycling * Employement & My Personal Career * Means of Travelling * An English-Speaking Country * Childhood * Clothes & Dressing Up * Foreign Languages * Shopping * The EU * National Cuisine * ‘Money Makes the World Go Round‘ * Travelling * National Parks in Lithuania * Migration * Shopping * Living Conditions * Violence on TV * Secondary School Examinations * Kinds of Art. The Influence of Art Upon People. * The NATO. * The Importance of Literature. * Sports. * Youth‘s Role in Social & Political Life. * Fast Food.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (29 psl., 155,84 kB)
Teenagers criminals
2009-07-16
Now teenagers commit more crimes then adult ones. Gangs of young criminals are increasing every day. What is the reason of that? The answer is one: family's instability, alcoholism, economical problems, depreciated schools and education, imperfect law system. In 1997 13 children aged from 5 to 10 year committed crimes and burglaries. In 1998 more then 28. Last year teenagers committed about 535 crimes. During one-year period delinquency raised 16.6%.
Teisė  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (3 psl., 17,22 kB)
Anglų kalbos kalbėjimo tema.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (1 psl., 3,39 kB)
America
2009-07-10
Physical and human geography. The land. The people. The economy. Administration and social conditions. Cultural life. Admited to the Union as the 33rd state on Feb. 14, 1859, Oregon comprises an area of startling physical diversity, from the moist rain forests, mountains, and fertile valleys of its western third to the naturally arid and climatically harsh eastern deserts.
Geografija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (4 psl., 9,04 kB)
One is not born, but rather becomes woman. No biological, physiological, or economic fate determines the figure that the human female presents in society; it is civilization as a whole that produces this creature, intermediate between male and eunuch, which is described as feminine. But what was really position of woman in 1950s – 1960s. I overlook different women positions in western and communist nations.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5,41 kB)
Lithuania
2009-07-09
Vilnius is the gateway to Lithuania and the Baltic States, being situated in an advantageous geographical location in Europe. The airport is within half an hour of the centre of the city. It has direct links with 18 cities and there is regular bus service to 7 countries. Vilnius is famous not only for its historical past, monuments, churches and green surroundings.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,75 kB)
Three countries: Lithuania, The United Kingdom and The United States of America have their own government and laws. There are some points which are the same in the government of all three countries, but there are some which are different. I will try to show the difference and similarities in the systems of governments and how did the countries divide the power to different institutions.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5,12 kB)
The Aim is to make a review on scientific literature. The Problem of the report is: The main causes of suicide; people’s condition who usually make it. Research methods used: I used closed questions because they allow respondents to answer the question very quickly, not using much time. In reason that findings would be more reliable I choose random sample. The majority of my respondents were students. There were 25 respondents, 68% of them were females and 32% males. The average of their age was 20.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,91 kB)
Chernobyl accident
2009-07-09
• The Chernobyl accident in 1986 was the result of a flawed reactor design that was operated with inadequately trained personnel and without proper regard for safety. • The resulting steam explosion and fire released about five percent of the radioactive reactor core into the atmosphere and downwind. • 30 people were killed, and there have since been up to ten deaths from thyroid cancer due to the accident. • An authoritative UN report in 2000 confirmed that there is no scientific evidence of any significant radiation-related health effects to most people exposed.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (5,28 kB)
Big city problems
2009-07-09
Since the foundation of Sćo Paulo, flood caused by summer rains has always been a serious problem, almost paralyzing the whole city. Year after year, many people die during these tropical rains, which devastate large areas of the city. 2000 was no exception. In March, inside the Anhangabaś Tunnel, in the downtown area, more than 160 vehicles got blocked by the rising water and were submerged as the tunnel flooded and the pumps didn't work fast enough. All over the city 14 people died and lots of houses and shops were invaded by mud and water.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (3,1 kB)
Pygmalion Summary
2009-07-09
Two old gentlemen meet in the rain one night at Covent Garden. Professor Higgins is a scientist of phonetics, and Colonel Pickering is a linguist of Indian dialects. The first bets the other that he can, with his knowledge of phonetics, convince high London society that, in a matter of months, he will be able to transform the cockney speaking Covent Garden flower girl, Eliza Doolittle, into a woman as poised and well-spoken as a duchess. The next morning, the girl appears at his laboratory on Wimpole Street to ask for speech lessons, offering to pay a shilling, so that she may speak properly enough to work in a flower shop.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (3,47 kB)
In 1979 Margaret Thatcher became the first woman to serve as prime minister of Great Britain, a post she held until 1990. Thatcher rose to office with promises to restore Britain’s economic prosperity, and she worked toward this goal by selling and privatizing many government-owned industries. Thatcher’s tenure as prime minister included leading Britain to victory over Argentina in the brief military dispute over the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands in 1982.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (2,76 kB)
Mass Media
2009-07-09
For our ordinary life are very important informations. We need informations about local, home and international political, social and sporst events. The biggets and most important sources of information are mass media. To mass media belong nawspapers, radio,television and internet. Newspaper. In Britiain the national newspapers are very important.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (3,77 kB)
Socialinės problemos lydi žmogų nuo pat pasaulio pradžios, tik pačių problemų pobūdis keičiasi: įgauna skirtingas formas ir įvairiais būdais veikia žmogaus egzistenciją. Patys ryškiausi sunkumai, kokie gali užklupti žmogų yra skurdas, vargas, nelaimės, sunkios ligos – sunaikinantys žmogų įvairiuose jo egzistencijos tarpsniuose.
Socialinis darbas  Referatai   (5,71 kB)
Lithuania
2009-07-09
Lithuania is situated on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea and borders Latvia on the north, Belarus on the east and south, and Poland and the Kaliningrad region of Russia on the southwest. It is a country of gently rolling hills, many forests, rivers and streams, and lakes. Its principal natural resource is agricultural land. Government. Parliamentary democracy. History. The Liths, or Lithuanians, united in the 12th century under the rule of Mindaugas, who became king in 1251.
Geografija  Referatai   (9,82 kB)
Oficialus pavadinimas - Liuksemburgo Didžioji Hercogystė (Grand - Duche de Luxembourg; Grossherzogtum Luxemburg; Grousherzogdem Lёtzebuerg). Sostinė - Liuksemburgas (Luxembourg; Luxemburg) kartais vadinama "kosmopolitiškiausia Europos sostine". Geografiniai duomenys . Tai nedidelė valstybė tarp Belgijos, Prancūzijos ir Vokietijos, kuri neturi tiesioginio išėjimo prie jūros (tik Mozelio ir Reino upėmis per Vokietiją ir Olandiją į Šiaurės jūrą);
Finansai  Referatai   (8,04 kB)
Taikos ir konfliktų studijos – tai kursas, skirtas magistro programos pirmojo kurso studentams. Šiame kurse detaliai apžvelgiamos taikos ir konfliktų teorijos, karo paplitimo problematika bei karų priežastys, jų geografinis pasiskirstymas, trumpai pristatoma karų istorija. Ypatingas dėmesys bus skiriamas įvairioms prievartos formoms, agresyvumo ir konfliktų priežastims, konfliktų sprendimams ir prevencijai. Kursas turėtų padėti klausytojams geriau suprasti karo ir taikos, tarptautinių ir vidinių konfliktų problematiką. Išklausę kursą studentai turėtų mokėti pateikti prievartos ir grėsmių analizę, suprasti karo ir konfliktų priežastis, grėsmių poveikį skirtingų lygių subjektams, interpretuoti konfliktų sprendimų ir prevencijos galimybes.
Lietuvių kalba  Analizės   (6,79 kB)
Jau seniai vartotojas ir jo poreikiai tapę vienu iš svarbiausių objektų kiekvienos organizacijos veikloje. Vartotojų elgsenos pažinimas rinkodaros specialistams leidžia suprasti ir numatyti vartotojų elgesį pirkimo vietoje, taip pat suteikia galimybę suprasti, kokią įtaką vartojimas daro kiekvieno individo gyvenime. Vartotojų elgsena, jų poreikių žinojimas, organizaciją įgalina efektyviau juos patenkinti, taip pat kurti abipusę naudą.
Rinkodara  Referatai   (4,48 kB)
Organizacijos tikslų įgyvendinimą, darbo produktyvumą ir kokybę lemia labai daug veiksnių. Apie tai rašoma įvairioje mokslinėje vadybinėje, psichologinėje ir kitoje literatūroje, tai suvokti leidžia kiekvieno vadovo, darbuotojo ir pašaliečio stebėtojo asmeninis patyrimas. Iš visų veiksnių peripetijos mes siekiame išskirti ir aptarti du faktorius bei paanalizuoti jų tarpusavio ryšį. Tai motyvacija ir socialinis – psichologinis klimatas.
In this paper I want to express my opinion about George Weigel point of view that Central and East Europe is the best hope for the future of Europe. In one point of view I have to agree with G. Weigel, that “history is driven, over the long haul, by culture – by what men and women honor, cherish, and worship; by what societies deem to be true and good and noble; by the expressions they give to those convictions in language, literature, and the arts; by what individuals and societies are willing to stake their lives on” ( “The Cube and the Cathedral”; p. 30).
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (3,06 kB)
Giorgio Armani is the world's second largest selling designer (the first is Ralph Lauren) who sells approx. $ 2 billion per year retail. His products are sold in over 100 countries. He has reached this position because everyone looks fabulous when they wear Armani, they feel so confident, so chic and yet so utterly(visiskai) themselves. It is like magic. He is the magician. 1934 Giorgio Armani was born in Piacanza, Italy, an industrial town about 20 miles south of Milan. He was the son of Marie and Ugo Armani.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (3,89 kB)
An ability to communicate without experiencing any difficulties is essential for building successful and easy life. Both professional and private individual’s lives depend on the way one manages to communicate. Almost every employer thinks highly of somebody who is communicative, especially if one’s duty is to deal with other people. What is more, communicative person’s private life is much easier because of having no retardations in establishing relations with other people.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,4 kB)
Ireland
2009-07-09
The Republic of Ireland (Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann) is the official description[1] of the sovereign state which covers approximately five-sixths of the island of Ireland, off the coast of north-west Europe. The state's official name is Ireland (Irish: Éire),[2] and this is how international organisations and citizens of Ireland usually refer to the country. It is a member of the European Union, has a developed economy and a population of slightly more than 4.2 million. The remaining sixth of the island of Ireland is known as Northern Ireland and is part of the United Kingdom.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (6,36 kB)
Nightclub is a business that is open at least twice a week and provides some type of regularly scheduled entertainment. It usually has an area for dancing if it is a dance club or a stage where patrons may observe entertainment such as live bands, comedy, magic, exotic dancers, etc. Most clubs serve alcoholic beverages and may or may not have dining. Night clubs have become the new fad in town!
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (4,84 kB)
Law
2009-07-09
Descriptive law is when it describes how people, or even natural phenomena, ussually behave. Prescriptive law – it prescribes how people ought to behave. For example, the speed limits imposed upon drivers are laws that prescribe how fast we should...
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (6,09 kB)
Managing people
2009-07-09
Nowadays managing is very important in our life. Everyone wants to manage, but not everybody can be good managers. John Peet, British Management Consultant said that management problems always turn out to be people problems. In our life are three main styles of managing: it is authoritarian, democratic and liberal. Good managers must have a cross-cultural awareness. It is very important to realize other country’s mores and understand differences between countries.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,68 kB)
One of the most striking features about India, which any foreign traveler must appreciate, is the size and diversity of this country. India is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of size, with a total landmass of 3,287,590 sq km. Located in South Asia, it has land boundary of 14,107 km with its neighbours [Pakistan, China, Bangladesh, Burma, Nepal and Bhutan] and a coastline of 7,000 km, which stretches across the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean. India is a country of both diversity and continuity.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,84 kB)
This section describes why leaders exist and what knowledge, skills, and abilities are important to manage learning. We know, to begin, that leaders exist because man is a social creature. The leader in our society is responsible for the essential tasks in the collections of groups that make up civilization. In most traditional or conventional training events, because of a lack of systematic programming, most of the emphasis is focused on attempts to change people's perception. Little time is usually allocated for practice and even less to measure changes in performance during the training situation.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (4,62 kB)
Cat's
2009-07-09
A group of cats is referred to as a clowder, a male cat is called a tom, and a female is called a queen. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire, and its female progenitor is its dam. An immature cat is called a kitten (which is also an alternative name for young rats, rabbits, hedgehogs, beavers, squirrels and skunks). In medieval Britain, the word kitten was interchangeable with the word catling. A cat whose ancestry is formally registered is called a pedigreed cat, purebred cat, or a show cat (although not all show cats are pedigreed or purebred). In strict terms, a purebred cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (23,62 kB)
European Union
2009-07-09
The European Union is the European supranational organization dedicated to increasing economic integration and strengthening co-operation among its member states. It was established on November 1, 1993, when the Treaty on Eu was ratified by the 12 members of the European Community (EC) – Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. Under the treaty on EU, customs and immigration agreements were enhanced to allow European citizens greater freedom to live, work, or study in any of the member states, and border controls were relaxed.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (2,61 kB)
Discuss the following statements. Which of them could be used to define culture? Before reading the text, explain in your own words what is meant by culture. Work in small groups or pairs and then share your ideas in the classroom .
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (4,73 kB)
Business Ethics
2009-07-09
Business ethics is a form of applied ethics, a branch of philosophy. As such, it takes the ethical concepts and principles developed at a more theoretical, philsophical level, and applies them to specific business situations. Generally speaking, business ethics is a normative discipline, whereby particular ethical standards are assumed and then applied. It makes specific judgements about what is right or wrong, which is to say, it makes claims about what ought to be done or what ought not to be done. While there are some exceptions, business ethicists are usually less concerned with the foundations of ethics (metaethics), or with justifying the most basic ethical principles, and are more concerned with practical problems and applications, and any specific duties that might apply to business relationships.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (6,48 kB)
Crime
2009-07-09
Today’s teenagers have many drugs in their bodies crack, cocaine and many deadly weapons in their hands. Guns in the guns of teenagers and violence on TV and in films may be problems, but they are not the only ones. Children spend too much time hanging out. The positively example of family, shool, religion have grown weak and ineffective. Young single mothers are unprepared for child rearing… Many boys do not have the example to a strong positive male model.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (3,34 kB)
Now the computer is very important invention for us. The first electronic computer was invented in 1950. The first computer was very big and not very clever. Now the computer is very small and modern. We can carry modern computer in the little bag. With computer we can do a lot of things, for example: play, write, listen the music, watch TV, read news papers and magazines, paint, count and do other things.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1,24 kB)
Pollution
2009-07-09
I’m going to speak about some kinds of pollution, for example air pollution or acid rain, water pollution. Now different kinds of trees, many of the animals, birds, fish are in serious danger. What should government do to stop the polluting, nowadays? First of all I would like to speak about water pollution There is no ocean or sea which is not used as a dump. Many rivers and lakes are poisoned, too. Fish and reptiles can’t live in them.
For over 60,000 years men and women have been communicating. Yet we still feel the need, perhaps more than ever, to find ways to improve these skills. According to numerous research studies, for your entire life you have spent about 75 per sent of each day engaged in communication. Therefore, you may be wondering why you need to study communication in the first place.
Analizė civilinių ir baudžiamųjų bausmių Lietuvoje, jų istorija, raida, dabartinės tendencijos, gavome 10. The Aim of project - to analyze tendencies and causes of crime in Lithuania; to investigate the effectiveness of ciminalistics and penal and civil effect measures on criminality in Lithuania. The Main goal: crime, criminal justice activities, penal and civil effect measures for crime control in Lithuania. The Main Tasks of the project - to prepare the concept of the analysis of criminal tendencies and causes and to prepare the proposals for the improvement of the Lithuanian penal policy; to investigate an effective crime control system of rational punishments and civil legal effect measures; to analyze the practice of the application of the criminal code and criminalities in crime investigation in Lithuania and to prepare the concept of crime investigation in Lithuania and, on the basis of this concept, to prepare concrete proposals for the effectuation of crime investigation in the Republic.
Referatas VU. Įvertinimas 10. Labai geras darbas. Language studies traditionally have emphasized verbal and written language, but in the late dozens of years have begun to consider communication that takes place without words. In some types of...
Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services. The term is associated with a social consensus (usually expressed through democratic elections) that certain services should be available to all, regardless of income. Even where public services are neither publicly provided nor publicly financed, for social and political reasons they are usually subject to regulation going beyond that applying to most economic sectors.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (8,51 kB)
Teisės teorija
2009-07-09
Be teisės žmonija negalėtų egzistuoti. Visos kitos normatyvinės sistemos pripažįstamos nepakankamomis. Tačiau iki šiandien nerimsta diskusija kokie yra skiriamieji teisės požymiai kurie padėtų atskirti teisę nuo kitų žmogaus elgesio reguliatorių. Bet kokia normatyvinė tvarka (moralinė, politinė, teisinė) yra išreiškiama normomis ir(arba) principais. Visos normos savo turiniu ir išraiškos pavidalu yra vienododos, o šių normų privalomumą lemia ypatingi kriterijai. Kaip tik dėl teisės normos kriterijų ir nesutaria skirtingos teisės sampratosšiandieninė teisės teorija, teisės normos privalomumą sijea su vienu ar daugiau kriterijų.
Teisė  Konspektai   (22,15 kB)
Italian Migration
2009-07-09
Italy is a country with a long history of emigration and a very short experience ofimmigration. Mass emigration started with Italian unification: during the period 1861- 1976 over 26 million people emigrated, half of them towards other European countries,the rest towards North and South America.
Geografija  Kursiniai darbai   (4,89 kB)
Egiptas
2009-07-09
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in North Africa that includes the Sinai Peninsula, a land bridge to Asia. Covering an area of about 1,001,450 square kilometers (386,560 square miles), Egypt borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and Israel and the Gaza Strip to the northeast; on the north and the east are the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, respectively.
Geografija  Namų darbai   (6,98 kB)
Europos Sąjunga
2009-07-09
Korupcijos požymiai valstybės tarnyboje, kituose valstybės ir privačiame sektoriuose kenkia demokratijai, ekonomikai ir teisės sistemai, todėl rengiamos kovos su ja priemonės turi būti nuoseklios, visapusiškos ir ilgalaikės. Ypač daug dėmesio...
Politologija  Kursiniai darbai   (19,85 kB)
Jungtinių tautų gyventojų fondo kasmetiniame pranešime pažymima, kad šiuo metu pasaulyje gyvena 1,7 mlrd. moterų tarp 15 ir 49 metų. Yra teigiama, jog tiek daug produktyvaus amžiaus moterų planetoje dar nebuvo. Kryptingos investicijos į jų išsilavinimą, gimstamumo reguliavimą, ekonomines galimybes ir politines teises gali ilgalaikėje perspektyvoje paspartinti ūkio augimą ir užtikrinti subalansuotą plėtrą.
Sociologija  Kursiniai darbai   (12,41 kB)
Socialinė gerovė
2009-07-09
Socialinė gerovė tapo begaline, įvairia ir kompleksiška institucija. Kai gerovės politikoje ir programose vyksta pokyčiai, jie paliečia milijonus žmonių ir net specialistai turi sunkumų nepakankamai įvertindami plačiai plintančius pokyčius nuo iš pirmo žvilgsnio reliatyviai mažų pakeitimų tiksluose, metoduose ar veikloje.
Sociologija  Kursiniai darbai   (22,09 kB)
Žmogaus mirtis yra žinomas, tačiau ignoruojamas dalykas. Šiuolaikiniai žmonės ne tik bijo ją patirti, bet ir nenoriai apie ją kalbasi. Mirties reiškinį sudaro daug smulkesnių procesų, kurie nėra iki galo pažinūs žmogaus protui, kadangi pažinimas ateina per subjektyvią patirtį. Tačiau mirtis negali būti patirtis, nes tai vienas esminių ir nevaldomų žmogaus instinktų, kurių patirti negalima, todėl mirties kaip subjekto visiškas pažinimas ir supratimas neįmanomas (Froidas Z., 1990).
Sociologija  Kursiniai darbai   (19,93 kB)
Socialinio pažinimo metodologijos ištakos.Vėberio kūryboje išskiriami 2 etapai. Per antrąjį etapą jis sukūrė ir išplėtojo socialinio pažinimo metodologinę koncepciją ir sšskyrė jos 5 dalis social. pažinimo konstitucijos koncepciją supratimo, aiškinimo, sąvokų koncepcijas ir metodologinio indvidualizmo koncepciją Sudarinėdamas šią social. pažinimo koncepcija Vėberis gretino Rikerto teorijai apie gamtamokslį pažinimą.
Sociologija  Konspektai   (2,97 kB)
Darbas apie fizines bausmes taikomas vaikams, jų pasekmės, kilmė, priežastys, įtaka auklėjimo raidai. Darbas susijęs su psichologija. Prievarta prieš vaikus egzistavo per amžius. Jos vertinimas ir supratimas skyrėsi ir skiriasi priklausomai nuo laikmečio, socialinio, kultūros - ekonominio lygmens. Visuomenėje pastaruoju metu vis daugiau dėmesio skiriama prievartos ir žiaurumo atvejų skaičiaus didėjimui. Pastaruoju metui vis dažniau viešumon iškyla, nors tik reti ir atskiri, prievartos prieš vaikus atvejai.
Psichologija  Referatai   (10,83 kB)
Anglų kalbos temos
2009-07-09
Personal identification I’m Darius. I was born in 1978 on the 21th of February in Kaunas. I don’t remember anything about the weather that day, but I know that it was about 2:30 p.m. I was the first child in the family. Our family is not very big, I have a brother. When I was a child I can't say, that I was a good boy. My parents always want me to be a good man, and now I'm very thankful for that.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (15,57 kB)
Computers
2009-07-09
Channels of communication What are ‘telecommunications’? This term refers to the transmission of information over long distances using the telephone system, radio, TV satellite or computer links. Examples are two people speaking on the phone, a sales department sending a fax to a client or someone reading the teletext pages on TV But in the modern world, telecommunications mainly means transferring information from one PC to another via modem and phone lines (or fibre-optic cables).
Nuclear energy
2009-07-09
The relative costs of generating electricity from coal, gas and nuclear plants vary considerably depending on location. Coal is, and will probably remain, economically attractive in countries such as China, the USA and Australia with abundant and accessible domestic coal resources as long as carbon emissions are cost-free.
Jane Eyre
2009-07-09
In this work there will be analyzed Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre. The book, acritique of social Victorian assumptions about gender and social class, became one of the most succeccful novels of its era, both critically and commercially. The structure of this work is as follows: - The period of Realism (it’s reflection in Jane Eyre) - Autobiography of Charlotte Bronte.
Family Relationship
2009-07-09
Psichologinė analizė apie santykius šeimoje. Families shape the quality of our lives. Emotional links among family members stretch across households and decades, influencing our outlooks on life, motivations, and strategies for achievement, and styles for coping with adversity. Family relations are the earliest and most enduring social relationships.
James Joyce (1882-1941), Irish novelist, noted for his experimental use of language in such works as “Ulysses“ (1922) and “Finneganns Wake“ (1939). Joyce's technical innovations in the art of the novel include an extensive use of interior monologue; he used a complex network of symbolic parallels drawn from the mythology, history, and literature, and created a unique language of invented words, puns, and allusions.
Tourism impacts
2009-07-09
Anglų kursinis. Įvertintas 8, nes trūko vienos dalies, o šiaip gan neblogas. For a tourism-based economy to sustain itself in local communities, the residents must be willing partners in the process. Their attitudes toward tourism and perceptions of its impact on community life must be continually assessed.
Europien Union
2009-07-09
What is the Europien Union ? The European Union (EU) is not a federation like the United States. Nor is it simply an organisation for co-operation between governments, like the United Nations. It is, in fact, unique. The countries that make up the EU (its ‘member states’) remain independent sovereign nations but they pool their sovereignty in order to gain a strength and world influence none of them could have on their own. Pooling sovereignty means, in practice, that the member states delegate some of their decision-making powers to shared institutions they have created, so that decisions on specific matters of joint interest can be made democratically at European level.
Gavau 9. ranslation is an action of interpretation of the text that gives the same massage in other language. Translation is basically a change of form. When we speak of the form of the language, we use words, sentences, paragraphs, etc., which are written or spoken.
Internet
2009-07-09
The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW).
Anglų kalba  Kursiniai darbai   (15,94 kB)
Danger of terrorism
2009-07-09
This topic concerns wide aspect of crimes, because definition of terrorism isn’t unanimous concept.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (8 kB)
Gavau 10. Diana Spencer nickname Lady Di born: July 1st, 1961 birthplace of: Sandringham (Norfolk - England) parents: John Edward Spencer (1924-1992) Lady Frances Spencer (1936) divorced since 1969 sisters and brothers: Sarah, Jane, Charles length: 1.77 m weight: unknown colour of eyes: blue colour of hair: blond residence: Kensington Palace in London marriage: On July 29th Lady Diana married Prince Charles.
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (24,52 kB)
Oral speech for the topic peace. It takes about 3min to say it. It contains useful recent info and is based on Roosevelt's words.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (2,11 kB)
Žmogus + kompiuteris... Prezentacija. Man-Computer relationship [presentation]: Will computers be able to make decisions for us? Maybe my presentation will help with the answer. 1: Man-computer relationship is a fast-growing field that draws upon several branches of social and information science, as well as medicine, computer science, and electrical engineering.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (1,73 kB)
Williams syndrome
2009-07-09
The most important treasure for peoples is health. Every body knows that, every body repeats it thousands of times. For parents sometimes the most important are them own child. They could do anything for them. But sometimes it is not enough to want or to do, because diseases do not ask or you could do for your child everything, it just appears and you need to fight with them. How much cost child’s health?
Anglų kalba  Referatai   (5,24 kB)
Charles Dickens
2009-07-09
Įvertintas 9. he Greatest of Victorian writers English novelist, generally considered the greatest of the Victorian period. Dickens's works are characterized by attacks on social evils, injustice, and hypocrisy. He had also experienced in his youth oppression, when he was forced to end school in early teens and work in a factory.
Anglų kalba  Namų darbai   (6,77 kB)
Style in letter
2009-07-09
Tai vienuolika skirtingomis temomis parašytų rašinėlių, kurie pravers besiruošiant anglų kalbos egzaminams ar kalbėjimo įskaitoms.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (10,77 kB)
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, is about a young boy, Huck, in search of freedom and adventure.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (11,73 kB)
Anglų kalbos temos
2009-07-09
Some people think that school years are the happiest days in people’s lives. Can you say that you have been happy at school? Why? School is the traditional place for acculturating children into our national life. In the modern age, the role assigned to our schools is to prepare children for the literate public culture.
The Advantages of Lithuania’s Integration into the European UnionThe integration into the European Union is one of the most crucial objectives of the Lithuania’s foreign policy. Beginning with 1989-1990, when the decision of the Baltic States to restore independence manifested itself, the largest Western states became interested in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.
War and peace
2009-07-09
The twentieth century has marked a clear watershed not only in mankind's social history but in its very destiny. The outgoing century is different from those that preceded it in that, for the first time ever, mankind cannot regard itself as immortal, for it has become aware that its dominion over nature has limits and may even threaten its own survival. Even if nuclear war can be avoided, the threat to mankind will remain, for the Earth may one day no longer have the capacity to bear the burden of human activity.
Childhood should be a happy time spent playing with friends, enjoying a favorite toy — even planning for the first day of school. But children in the developing world spend most of their childhood struggling to survive, without much hope for a secure, productive life.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (3,05 kB)
Literature genres
2009-07-09
Literatūros žanrai. Haiku is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka Shiki of the older hokku. The traditional haiku consisted of a pattern of 5, 7, 5 on. The Japanese word on, meaning "sound". Haiku usually combine three different lines, with a distinct grammatical break, called kireji, usually placed at the end of either the first five or second seven morae.
Anglų kalba  Konspektai   (6,38 kB)
Atsakymas į egzamino klausimą. Įvertintas puikiai. Anglų kalba. 5 lapai 12 šriftu. Innovation can be usefully characterized as a learning process. Learning is intrinsically cumulative: firms, regions and countries usually innovate along specific and quite rigid trajectories. Technological progress and innovation usually involve a variety of learning processes which may be obtained either from internal or external sources.
Opinion Letter: Child Labor According to the International Labor Organization there are approximately 250 million working children between the ages of 5 and 14. Somewhat around 120 million of them are performing in their jobs on a full time basis. Another half combines with school and other non-economic activities. Impressive numbers, aren’t they?
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (4,81 kB)
Private schooling
2009-07-09
Private Schooling Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that private schools offer a better education to children and better prepare them for college. Thesis Statement: Private school children are more involved in community service, are generally provided with a better education, and are more likely to apply and succeed in college.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (2,38 kB)
Unemployment really is one of the economic and social problems. However, stressing of this problem usually leaves people with an impression that it is the most urgent in Lithuania. One could read in an article in one newspaper that this problem is not that urgent as our politicians present it.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (3,35 kB)
Trumpas knygos aprašymas, į kurį įeina įžanga, pagrindinės problemos, kodėl verta perskaityti ir išvados. The book “Troubled heritage” is a fascinating, thrilling romance, written by the talented author Jeanne Wilson. The book tells the story of love, adventure, and wild passions amongst the members of three Jamaican families. The plot of “Troubled heritage” focuses on the social problems, such as caste, privileges for white- and dark-skinned people, decisions on lightening the colour by marriages to white girls, and the question: can the two- or three- quarters legitimate heirs inherit devise?
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (0,81 kB)
Knygos "Karaoke akpitalizmas" analizė. Darbas anglų kalba, buvo įvertintas puikiai. Pristatytas KTU. 10 lapų.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (6,65 kB)
Advertising
2009-07-09
By mean of the elections people express their opionion how the country should be governed and who in their opinion would do it the best. In this essay I will try to compare how the main bodies of the Government are elected in all three countries – the...
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (2,1 kB)
“Agnes Grey” by Anne Bronte is a strongly autobiographical novel portraying the world of a governess in the mid-nineteen century and examining social manners and the lack of moral perceptions. Drawing on her own experience the author of this book...
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (4,28 kB)
KTU socialinių mokslų fakulteto 1 kurso anglų kalbos tiriamasis darbas (gavau 10). "Government does not tax to get the money it needs; government always finds a need for the money it gets." That’s what once said Ronald Reagan about taxes and what it is collected for. Of course, it was a joke, but I may bet there are lots of people, who would agree with that thought. Sometimes they even feel that they are caught in the behemothian jaws of government.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (4,09 kB)
Agnes grey
2009-07-09
“Agnes Grey” by Anne Bronte is a strongly autobiographical novel portraying the world of a governess in the mid-nineteen century and examining social manners and the lack of moral perceptions. Drawing on her own experience the author of this book tries to reveal the position of a young, educated girl who sets out into the world to take up the only respectable career open to her – that of governess.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (3,66 kB)
Many people believe that religion occurs only in the church, temple, or other spiritual places of gathering. They see religion and society as complete, separate entities. While this view may appear correct on the surface, a closer look at religion and society reveals that the two are not separate at all, but intricately interconnected and codependent.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (6,54 kB)
Palyginimas darželių, mokyklų ir rebilitacijos klinikos Norvegijoje ir Lietuvoje. Darbas pristatytas Agderio universitete Norvegijoje.
Anglų kalba  Analizės   (8,8 kB)
Mass media
2009-06-16
Means of communication are such as print, radio, TV. The mass media are defined as large-scale organizations which use one or more of these technologies to communicate with large numbers of people (‘mass communications’). The mass media has two important sociological characteristics: first, very few people can communicate to a great number; and, second, the audience has no effective way of answering back. Mass communication is by definition a one-way process. Media organizations are bureaucratic and corporate in nature.
Anglų kalba  Rašiniai   (1 psl., 3,02 kB)
Kashmir
2009-06-02
The beginning of the new millennium has been a heart wrecking one for the peace loving people of the world. The year 2001 saw dispute, destruction, and death — all in the name of religion. Once again, India and Pakistan are on the brink of a war. Why are these two siblings always at loggerheads with each other? Is it because Pakistan is an Islamic nation and India predominantly a land of Hindus? No, the reasons are more political than religious. It's hard to imagine that Kashmir, one of the most beautiful places in South Asia, inhabited by a peaceful populace, can become the bone of contention between the two countries.
Politologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (4 psl., 9,09 kB)
Kashmiri struggle
2009-06-02
Those who are trying to project the present struggle as religious one are deliberately trying to confuse the issue. Their aim is very clear - they don't want the issue to be resolved. It is clear to everyone that by projecting the Kashmiri struggle as religious (which is known as "Islamic fundamentalist struggle"), we are only trying to deprive it from desperately needed internal and external support. Also by projecting it as a fundamentalist or extremist movement, an attempt is being made to frighten off the non Muslims of Kashmir. Already a lot of damage has been done to the social and community harmony, and such attempts are made to ensure that the minorities of Kashmir remain divided.
Politologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (2 psl., 4,72 kB)
Judaism
2009-05-18
Judaism is the oldest of the monotheistic faiths. It affirms the existence of one God, Yahweh, who entered into covenant with the descendants of Abraham, God's chosen people. Judaism's holy writings reveal how God has been present with them throughout their history. These writings are known as the Torah, specifically the five books of Moses, but most broadly conceived as the Hebrew Scriptures (traditionally called the Old Testament by Christians) and the compilation of oral tradition known as the Talmud (which includes the Mishnah, the oral law).
Teologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (2 psl., 6,17 kB)
Hinduism
2009-05-18
Hinduism is the major religion of India, practiced by more than 80% of the population. In contrast to other religions, it has no founder. Considered the oldest religion in the world, it dates back, perhaps, to prehistoric times. No single creed or doctrine binds Hindus together. Intellectually there is complete freedom of belief, and one can be monotheist, polytheist, or atheist.
Teologija  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (2 psl., 4,61 kB)
Euro - disadvantages and advantages. Millenium. Vilnius – european capital of culture 2009. Politics. Olympic games. National parks.
Anglų kalba  Pagalbinė medžiaga   (5 psl., 22,23 kB)