Referatai, kursiniai, diplominiai
Kultūra – apima žinias , tikėjimus , menus , moralę , papročius ir kitus gebėjimus, kurios žmogus įgyja , kaip visuomenes narys . Lietuviams kultūra buvo svarbi jau nuo seniausių laikų, tai matome iš sukauptų rašytojų turtų – knygų(J. Ivanauskaitės „Mėnulio vaikai“ , „Viršvalandžiai“ ir kt; A.Mickevičius, K.Donelaitis ir t.t) bei režisierių sukurtų vertingų filmų ( G. Dauguvietytė ).
Lietuvių kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (2 psl., 8,71 kB)
Urbanizacija - socialinis ir kultūrinis procesas - miestų augimas, jų gausėjimas; gyventojų kėlimasis į miestus, virtimas miestiečiais. Pasak archeologų, žmonija šioje planetoje jau gyvena milijonus metų. Palyginti su tuo, miestai, kurie šiandien mums atrodo neatsiejama žmogaus gyvenimo dalis, yra gana naujas išradimas – jie atsirado maždaug prieš 7-9 tūkstantmečius. Jų socialinio, ekonominio bei kultūrinio dominavimo žmonijos gyvenime istorija dar trumpesnė. Iš kitos pusės, miestas yra neatskiriama civilizacijos dalis. Karų, architektūros, meno istorija, beveik visi didieji žmonijos triumfai ir tragedijos, pakilimai ir nuosmukiai susiję su miestu bei jame gyvenančiais žmonėmis.
Kalbos kultūra  Kalbėjimo temos   (4 psl., 10,55 kB)
Rašinys apie vaikystę anglų kalba.
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Jaunas žmogus gyvena kitokiame pasaulyje nei vyresnieji. Mes esame kupini svajonių, planų, tam tikra prasme esame maksimalistai. Mums, kaip toje dainoje “jūra iki kelių, dangus lig pažastų”. Mes dar nepažįstame visų tykančių pavojų, todėl esame mažiau atsargūs ir norime viską išbandyti. Mes dar ieškome savojo “aš”, todėl mėgstame bendraamžių draugiją (tokių pačių ieškotojų), kartais klystame, o kartais atrandame kažką netikėta. Mes esame kryžkelėje, todėl dažnai susiduriame su problemomis.
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I would like to visit Australia, USA and England. Australia called the most dryest continent. Immensity of the territory is desert or semi-desert areas. Australia does not have gigantic cultural or historical monuments.
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Many people believe that the way we live our lives today is having an extremely bad effect on the environment. Here are some examples of environmental problems and solutions. Pollution - is damage to the air, sea, rivers, or land caused by chemicals, waste and harmful gases. Pollutants include toxic waste, pesticides, and fertilizers.
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Mass Media
The mass media plays very important role in our life. It helps us to learn what is happening in the world very fast. Mass media includes newspapers, magazines, radio and television. Nowadays there are so many newspapers a. magazines, radio station a. TV channels that we have to be very selective a. choose the best of them.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 7,67 kB)
About reading
Anglų kalbos topikas apie skaitymą, elektroninių knygų trūkumus ir privalumus bei mėgstamiausią knygą.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (1 psl., 3,28 kB)
Writing story
Everything died away. Suddenly something exploded. It was such a strong blast – Sally even stopped her ears. She clutched the mobile phone and dialed the police station. She said that someone had broken in her house and had been trying to blast it. Then the girl dialed the firehouse and said that something had exploded and maybe the house was on fire. The police and the fire engine arrived in ten minutes. Sally had hidden in her wardrobe before that and did not hear anything. The police broke into the house and saw only Sally’s mother Anna who was cooking dinner. She was shocked. She just lifted her hands in astonishment. A fireguard saw that her blender had cracked and understood everything at once. Anna climbed upstairs to the daughter’s bedroom, opened the door with a passkey and found Sally crying in her wardrobe. She felt ashamed, because she had realized what was going on. Anna hugged Sally and comforted her.
Working day
Usually my mother makes breakfast for me. But when she is away, I make breakfast myself. I usually have a few sandwiches, two eggs and a cup of tea. I leave the house at 7.30 a.m. As the school isn’t far from home, I don’t take a bus. I go on foot. It takes me about ten minutes to get to school. Usually I meet my friend Andrius on my way. We go to school together. Our lessons start at eight o’clock. We usually have seven or eight lessons a day. It is not easy to study at our school, but it’s among the best schools in the region. There is a break for lunch after the fourth lesson. The break is short, so I have to hurry in order to get to the canteen, to have a lunch and to get back to the classroom on time. Our lessons are over at around 3 p.m.
Women On Television
During this period from the decades of the 1950's through the 1990's, women started getting their own jobs and got better schooling. The roles of women as portrayed in popular American television have changed from that of humiliating, degrading images to those of dignity and respect. "The adolescent girl is confronted by a different set of gender-role expectations and different socialization pressures (than boys). In keeping with the traditional expectation that a female's ultimate goals are marriage and motherhood rather than a career and independence, the prime objective seems to be heterosexual attractiveness and popularity.
First of all I would like to say that the topic of my assay will be about one or another important thing which I can changed around me and explain what would happen If change It. Besides, I must say that I am not so mighty that I could change an important thing, but I’ll try my best to imagine it. Nowadays the is a lot of poverty, thousands of people in Lithuania are unemployed, almost every third man needs charity and so on.... So the first thing I would change, for better life, would be the establishment of my own charity centre. It would be great to help others especially to those who need help. But the main thing is that our government and private people whose wages are above average would support the centre. I think then life in Lithuania would be much better, everybody would enjoy living in Lithuania, it would be a good example for other countries. The second important thing, which I could change, would be prohibition of all kinds of alcohol, a prohibition of weapons and prohibition of smoking. To my mind, without these drugs and guns, our life would improve, our security would increase and our healthy would be much stronger. These mentioned things are the most worrying things for me. In conclusion I would like to say that we need to think about it a little bit more and of course take measures.
Water Pollution
There are several factors that causes water pollution. One of the reasons that the water pollution problem is so severe is that it is not actually illegal to dump pollutants into water bodies. Sewage, sludge, garbage, and even toxic pollutants are all dumped into the water. Often, governments either do not care or simply look the other way. Across the world, about half of all sewage is dumped into water bodies in its original form. No efforts are made to disinfect the sewage or to remove especially harmful pollutants. Even if sewage is treated, problems still arise.
Violence in sports
In order to look into this matter, we must first understand what violence in sports is and how it may affect young children’s mindsets. In order to full understand the subject of sports violence we need to know the full definition of it. Violence in sports is defined by M.D.Smith as, “a physical assault or other physically harmful actions by a player that takes place in a sports context and that is intended to cause physical pain or injury to another player (or fan, coach, game official, etc.), where such harmful actions bear no direct relationship to the rules and associated competitive goals of the sport.”
Violence at school
Kids do not turn violent overnight, nor do they not have previous problems of some type. Aggressive behavior can be attributed to a number of things and expressed in a number of ways through home-life, culture, and society. Many of the kids who have committed violent crimes have had problems since the age of five. It is extremely hard to say what leads kids to horrible acts such as Springfield and Columbine. One reason may be aggressive behavior in childhood, caused by harsh and inconsistent parents. A poor family life often leads to trouble in school from the very beginning. The best thing to do for such troubled children is to help them control their aggression through emotional growth and learning. Parents should encourage good behavior or the child will think this way is ineffective. As the child grows older they will continue to think that violent behavior is acceptable and is the most effective way. A teacher can step into these situations and help them see positive morals and realize their actions are wrong. Teachers should reward students for polite behavior or else they will feel frustration and failure. Frustration and failure can bring the child to aggressive behavior as it brings results and gives a sense of control.
The first documentary reference to Vilnius dates back to 1323, when the Great Duke Gediminas proclaimed Vilnius the capital of Lithuanian state and invited foreign artists, scientists, builders to come live and work here. Vilnius has got a very beautiful Old Town, which reminds us the history of our native country. In the centre of the Old Town, on the Castle hill, stands the Gediminas Tower, a part of an old castle built 6 centuries ago. There is a square in slope of the Castle Hill. It's called the Cathedral square, because there is a cathedral in the centre of it. This cathedral, reconstructed in the end of the 18th century by the famous Lithuanian architect Stuoka-Gucevichius, is the most important catholic church in Lithuania. Vilnius is a mixture of the main architectural styles: Baroque, Classicism, Renaissance and Gothic. The church of St. Anna is considered to be a Gothic masterpiece, the Gediminas castle is a representative of Gothic style too. Well-known representative of Baroque is the church of St. Peter and Paul. The Italian sculptors worked on the masterpieces of art of this church. There are thousands of sculptures in it. Classicism dominates in some Cathedral, University buildings. Vilnius University is very old, it was established in 1579. There are many new districts built in the latest 30 years: Lazdynai, Baltupiai (shame of Vilnius), Karolinishkes, Fabijonishkes, Justinishkes. I don't admire such "modern" houses of blocks, factories, standing in the centre of the city. Despite this, I don't want to criticise Vilnius more. It's my native town and I couldn't live in any other town.
A vegetarian is one who eats no animal products. Some people call themselves vegetarians but still eat fish and chicken; be assured those two species still belong to the animal kingdom—they have flesh and blood just like a cow or a human or a deer. Also he or she uses a minimum of leather, only where necessary. There are three issues to consider in regard to vegetarianism. They are: nutritional, spiritual, and moral. Nutritionally, the alkaline-based digestive system of humans will not properly break down substantial acid substances, the greatest of which is meat. (Also, the amount of cholesterol in meat is unhealthy.) Colon cancer is rampant! This is caused by the slow evacuation and the putrefaction in the colon of the remains of meat. Lifelong vegetarians never suffer from such an illness. The type and amount of oils in meat are unhealthy and they turn rancid upon the death of the animal. The flesh and blood also began to putrefy as soon as the animal is killed. Many meat eaters believe that meat is the sole source of protein. However, the quality of this protein is so poor that little of it can ever be utilized by humans because it is incomplete and lacks the correct combination of amino acids, the building blocks of protein. Studies show that the average American gets five times the amount of protein needed. It is a common medical fact that excess protein is dangerous, the prime danger being that uric acid (the waste product produced in the process of digesting protein) attacks the kidneys, breaking down the kidney cells called nephrons. This condition is called nephritis; the prime cause of it is overburdening the kidneys. More usable protein is found in one tablespoon of tofu or soybeans than the average serving of meat!
Using the internet
Because of this new communication channel we feel almost as if we are eye witnesses of events which take place in distant countries. And this is just the beginning of a great development. Nowadays, everybody feels the need to have access to the internet. Personally, I just can't imagine that there is any information we can't by virtue this medium.
TV Violence
Every day we tend to watch news, and every day we hear that people were killed, robbed or tortured. Four out of ten people said that they had been the victims of actual or threatened violence in the United States. Usually I ask myself why some people have tendencies toward violence. What factors cause those violent and aggressive behaviors? Among broad other reasons such as mental health, personal characteristics and economic status there is the violence in media that gives people those nonsensical ideas and inspiration.
Anglų kalba  Kalbėjimo temos   (15,55 kB)
TV in my life
I have about 20 TV channels, they are: TV3, LNK, BTV, LRT, ORT, RTR and others. I also have few KOSMOS TV’s channels, for example: Cartoon Network, Discovery Channel, VIVA, and BBC. I like some of them and hate others. So here are a few words about the channels that I like. So, my favorite channel is VIVA. VIVA is a music channel. 24 hours a day of music, can you believe it? I like to listen to music very much, and sometimes I even make music myself, that is why I enjoy watching VIVA. I also like NTV.
It’s always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms. Those who live in the country like to go to a big city and spend their time visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but walk and bathe and laze in the sun.
I have a computer as well. I need my computer for doing my homework or just for spending my free time. I use programs such us Microsoft Word, Excel, Win amp, Nero and so on. I spend few hours a day working on a computer. But sometimes (if I have a lot of to do) I spend almost all day working on a computer. If I have free time, sometimes I spend it playing computer games. But it isn’t very often. My favorite computer games are the following: X, X, X and others. It is interesting question about advantages and disadvantages of having a computer at home or at school. The main disadvantage of computers is that staring at a screen for long periods of time can be damaging to eyes, and sitting on a chair for hours at a time is certainly not healthy. Secondly, computers distract from social interactions such as conversation. Also, people can be inclined to become anti-social and stay at home in front of their computers for ages. Finally, the most persuasive argument against the using computers is that more and more are done by computers and less are done by people. That means that not only unemployment is increasing, but people become lazier not even to do anything, but to think as well. However, the advantages of computers are numerous, such us undeniable educational benefits, especially for children. School subjects become more interesting when they are presented on a computer screen. Moreover, computers can be fun with a seemingly endless variety of games which can be played on computers. In addition, computers are valuable to any business, making life easier and saving time by being capable of storing and retrieving vast amounts of information at the touch of button. Furthermore, personal can see as the using of computers increases powers of concentration. To sum it up, I must say that computer is a thing, which helps us to do our life much easier. So it means that we shouldn’t make it more important than our life or friends.
The United Kingdom
There are a lot of very small islands - almost five thousands of them- near the coasts of Great Britain. The surface of Eastern England is flat. Scotland and Wales are hilly and mountainous. There are many rivers in Britain, but none of them being very long. The principal rivers are the Severn, the Thames and the Trent. The Severn is the longest river in the UK but the Thames is the most important one.
The ground is covered with fresh green grass and the first spring flowers .The trees are covered with new leaves and blossoms. The air is fresh and sun shines brightly. Spring's months are March, April and May. Summer months are June, July and August. The weather is usually fine in summer. It is much warmer than in spring. The trees are green and the gardens are full of flowers. Everybody enjoys summer. A lot of people have their holidays in summer. They can go swimming and boating , they can lie in the sun and get sunburnt , they can gather berries and mushrooms. Autumn months are September, October and November. The days become shorter and the nights become longer. The weather often changes, and it gets colder and colder. The sky is often grey and cloudy, often rains. Autumn is harvesting time, the time when grain, fruit and vegetables become ripe. Winter months are December, January and February. Sometimes it is very cold (30 degrees or more below zero). It often snows. Winter is a good time for sport. Little children are fond of playing snowballs and making snowmen, older ones go in for skating and skiing.
The drug problem
Children start on “soft” drugs such as hashish or marijuana, moving on to speed and ecstasy, and finally to “hard” drugs such as heroin. Some people say that there is no drug problem in my hometown, as it is too small for this. But if you look around more carefully, you will see that this problem is everywhere. I think that drugs have spread all over the world. Almost every teenager has used some kind of drugs, but there are many youngsters who take dozes of drugs every day or even more often. As a rule, if there are buyers, there are sellers as well. All you need is money. There were some programs to fight drug abuse in my town. To be more specific, there were some competitions and lectures against drugs. All students took part in these lectures. The drug problem in Lithuania in general is much bigger than in my native town. In biggest cities as Vilnius, Kaunas or Klaipeda this problem is huge. There are many homeless young people who live with drugs. How we could help them? The first thing we have to do is to learn to listen. One ray of hope is the dedicated work performed by social workers, who should spend their time offering children and young people a new perspective. Social workers could visit the places where young people are likely to be hanging out every day to try to make contact and gain their confidence. People all over the world close their eyes to the fate of these youngsters only too often, or discriminate against them because they have no jobs, use drugs. And if we are honest, which one of us has ever seriously questioned the stories behind these young people’s existence? To sum it up, I think its better not even to try drugs, because you can become a drug addict. Drugs really change people. They lose interest in everything, they have no friends, they only care about the next doze. Do you want to live like that?
The daily routine
I open the window; make my bed and switch on the radio. I do my exercises to music. Then I go to the bathroom, take a shower and brush my teeth. While I dress, my mother gets breakfast ready for me. I usually have some toast, two eggs and a cup of tea. I leave the house at 7.55 a.m. As the school is not far from my home, I do not take a bus, I go on foot. It takes me only 5 minutes to get to school. I usually meet my best friend Povilas on my way. We walk together and talk about different things. Our lessons begin at 8 o’clock. We have seven lessons a day, except Monday and Friday. On these days we have six lessons. Our lessons are over 2.25 p.m. After coming home I have my dinner and take a short nap. Then I spend two hours on my homework. In the evening I like to do a little reading. Sometimes I sit at home and watch TV or listen to the radio. I also try to find time to do sports and help my parents. It is not until midnight that I usually go to bed.
Teenagers criminals
Last year teenagers committed about 535 crimes. During one-year period delinquency raised 16.6%. Biggest part of crimes was committed by teenagers aged from 13 to 19. Thefts from cars are 42.3% and burgalyries-31.5% off all committed crimes. Every 6th crime is burglary. Films of violence, detailed crime stories in the press have a big influence for crimes increasing. In 1998 investigated 47 teenagers’ burglaries in Siauliai, this year, after 4 months - 28. 22 of them were investigated. Comparing with last year Siauliai has 46.7% increases. Dogging adult’s steps teenagers begin extort wealth, cheat, make drugs, use guns, process money, resell burglaries things. Statistic shows that drunk or intoxicated teenagers made many crimes. From 615 criminals 249 are pupil from secondary school. 53% guilty juveniles don’t study or work. We can group teenager criminals into two groups. One group of them become criminals, because those teenagers are weakling persons, their friends make great influence on them on their way of thinking or by these friends help they do a crime for fun. Other group of teenager’s criminals does crimes for their bad social status. How a teenager can become a criminal? Teenager can become a criminal when: • This teenager’s friends make great influence on him on his way of thinking. • This teenager is a weakling person and he can’t resist the temptation to alcohol, drugs, so he does a crime, because at that moment he did not understand what he was doing, because he was drunk. • This teenager does not have what to do in his spare time, so he does a crime just for having fun. • This teenager’s social status is bad, so he does a crime for having money. What kind of teenager criminals are in Lithuania? A teenager criminal can be: • vandal (a person who likes to draw on the cars, walls, houses, who likes to brake something); • filches (some kind of stealer); • pilferer (some kind of stealer); • pugnacious person (a person who likes to fight against somebody); • burglar (a person who steals from the houses); • rapist (a person who likes to rape women); • racketeer (a person who orders another person to give all his money); As we all know the bigger part of teenager criminals are of male sex. And we also know that a teenager criminal is not so dangerous like a professional criminal, who has got lots of experience in that sphere. And that a teenager criminal’s way of life could be easily changed to another way of life, normal way of life, just you have to show that there is another way of living. Police account Why do youngsters become criminals? It’s the question, which bothers a lot of people. Here are some reasons why that happen: Youngsters don’t have interesting facilities and hobbies These are the main things why youngsters become criminals. Now we want to tell some ideas how to solve this problem. Should be some educational centers where young people could find a professional psychologist that would help a lot. Schools should try to help solve that problem and organize some lectures for students about crimes, drugs, how drugs can make people do very bad things. We were explaining how to solve that problem, but we forgot to tell what kinds of crimes are most popular. There are a lot of hooligans, but it isn’t the biggest problem in our country. They have a lot of problems with muggers, because they are getting money like that for drugs and then they start feeling bad and start robbing (old ladies), stealing or even burgling. That makes a lot of problems for police officers. And the other kind of crimes is shoplifting (that is the most popular kind of crimes) Very many shops loose a lot of money, because of that. And the main thing with shoplifters is that they get used to it and become addict. We think you want to ask why police isn’t doing anything about that. But they do. They try to organize some summer caps for youngsters try to take them to psychologist or to talk with them; some times they organize shows for pupil. So I think you can’t say that police is doing nothing.
Technology progress
Now we are talking about such things like Internet, computerized information systems, information databases. These things are closely connected to our life and we couldn’t imagine living without them. Not only couldn’t a person live without these new technologies. Now everything – banks, airports, governmental system, telephony, etc. are based on latest technologies. Why is it all so necessary? It is only because a man needs to know more and reach more than he has and knows now. Scientists search for other life in space and they use latest technology – everything is computerized. Now we can see the progress of congnitivistics – computer intellect. Maybe after 10 or more years we will have thinking computerized systems, which will ease our life even more. This information revolution affects all the people. 10 years ago there were only 4-5% working people, who worked with information. Now this percent exceeds to 70% and it’s growing fast. And so we are talking about information society. For Lithuanian people it is very hard to overcome our old beliefs, when we lived in Soviet Union. Of course it will take some time, but it will be only useful. Information becomes a strategically important element in everyday life and in every organization that wants to be successful. We must go together with technology because this is the only way to achieve more. Technology is developing and every tomorrow can be very surprising for us. Technology progress never stops. But we must also remember that technology can be also dangerous and bring as much harm as good. It is good that we have lasers and other related technology when they are used to cure people and for good purposes. But when this technology turns back to us with very unfriendly intentions then it can be too late. So we must be aware of this and maybe this is the only disadvantage of technology progress.
Stress Managment
Unhealthy stress is called Distress. Distress is unhealthy because it can cause all sorts of health problems such as anxiety attacks or high blood pressure. There are two different kinds of stressors, an internal stressor and an External stressor. An internal stressor is self-generated stress.
When the favourite team wins, fans are very happy (like students who have taken exams), but if favourite team loses, fans are usually upset. Young fans then usually get drunk and go to the streets breaking everything.